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The formation of blood in the embryo is dependent on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), but how BMP signaling intersects with other regulators of hematopoietic development is unclear. Using embryonic stem (ES) cells, we show that BMP4 first induces ventral-posterior (V-P) mesoderm and subsequently directs mesodermal cells toward blood fate by activating(More)
Polycomb group response elements (PREs) mediate the mitotic inheritance of gene expression programs and thus maintain determined cell fates. By default, PREs silence associated genes via the targeting of Polycomb group (PcG) complexes. Upon an activating signal, however, PREs recruit counteracting trithorax group (trxG) proteins, which in turn maintain(More)
Drosophila Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins are responsible for the maintenance of stable transcription patterns of many developmental regulators, such as the homeotic genes. We have used ChIP-on-chip to compare the distribution of several PcG/TrxG proteins, as well as histone modifications in active and repressed genes across the(More)
Quantitative assessment of airway-wall dimensions by computed tomography (CT) has proven to be a marker of airway-wall remodelling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The objective was to correlate the wall thickness of large and small airways with functional parameters of airflow obstruction in COPD patients on multi-detector (MD) CT(More)
Expression of the genetic information encoded in our genomes is usually regulated by proteins interacting with the DNA. In some cases, however, noncoding RNAs transcribed from DNA control elements cooperate with histone-modifying enzymes to regulate gene expression, as has recently been shown for noncoding RNA originating from Polycomb- and Trithorax-group(More)
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare hereditary condition that is caused by a genetic defect in the copper-transporting ATPase ATP7B that results in hepatic copper accumulation and lethal liver failure. The present study focuses on the structural mitochondrial alterations that precede clinical symptoms in the livers of rats lacking Atp7b, an animal model for WD.(More)
In healthy individuals, T cells react against incoming pathogens, but remain tolerant to self-antigens, thereby preventing autoimmune reactions. CD4 regulatory T cells are major contributors in induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance, but a regulatory role has been also reported for several subsets of CD8 T cells. To determine the molecular basis(More)
Cdx1, Cdx2, and Cdx4 comprise the caudal-like Cdx gene family in mammals, whose homologues regulate hematopoietic development in zebrafish. Previously, we reported that overexpression of Cdx4 enhances hematopoietic potential from murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Here we compare the effect of ectopic Cdx1, Cdx2, and Cdx4 on the differentiation of murine(More)
In Wilson disease (WD), functional loss of ATPase copper-transporting β (ATP7B) impairs biliary copper excretion, leading to excessive copper accumulation in the liver and fulminant hepatitis. Current US Food and Drug Administration- and European Medicines Agency-approved pharmacological treatments usually fail to restore copper homeostasis in patients with(More)