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Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), TLR-4, and MD-2 in spleens and livers of C3H/HeN mice (carrying wild-type TLR-4) and C3H/HeJ mice (carrying mutated TLR-4) in response to Salmonella infection. During Salmonella infections, TLR-4 is activated, leading to increased TLR-2 and decreased TLR-4 expression.
Campylobacter jejuni can cause an enteritis that is associated with an acute inflammatory response at the gut epithelial surface. The signals inducing inflammation are unknown. C. jejuni can penetrate the intestinal epithelial barrier and may then interact with leucocytes, potentially inducing proinflammatory responses. To investigate this, we studied the(More)
Pattern recognition receptors are central to the responsiveness of various eukaryotic cell types when they encounter pathogen-associated molecular patterns. IFN-gamma is a cytokine that is elevated in humans and other animals with bacterial infection and enhances the LPS-induced production of antibacterial mediators by macrophages. Mice lacking the pattern(More)
Invasion of macrophages by salmonellae induces cellular responses, with the bacterial inducers likely to include a number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. LPS is one of the prime candidates, but its precise role in the process, especially when presented as a component of live infecting bacteria, is unclear. We thus investigated this question using(More)
Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is important in protection against lethal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) infection. Control of the early stages of sublethal S. Typhimurium infection in mice depends on TLR4-dependent activation of macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells to drive an inflammatory response. TLR4 signals through the(More)
Pathogenic strains of Yersinia spp. inject a set of Yop effector proteins into eukaryotic cells by using a plasmid-encoded type III secretion system. In this study, we analyzed the inflammatory response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after infection with different Yersinia enterocolitica strains. We found that both expression of(More)
Ovine footrot is characterised by interdigital dermatitis (ID) and by the separation of the skin and hoof horn (under-running footrot). Dichelobacter nodosus is the essential pathogen causing footrot; the role of other microorganisms in this disease remains unclear. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the colonisation of D nodosus, Fusobacterium(More)
Sublethal infection of C57BL/6 mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium M525P initiates a strong inflammatory response. We measured organ expression of mRNA for Toll-like receptors and their associated signaling molecules during S. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. During infection, the Toll-lie receptor 1 (TLR1), TLR2, and TLR9 mRNA levels(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is an intracellular pathogen that causes macrophage cell death by at least two different mechanisms. Rapid cell death is dependent on the Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 protein SipB whereas delayed cell death is independent of SipB and occurs 18-24 hr post infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is(More)
Annexin-1 (ANXA1) is a glucocorticoid-regulated protein that modulates the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on macrophages. Exogenous administration of peptides derived from the N-terminus of ANXA1 reduces LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, but the effects of altering the endogenous expression of this protein are(More)