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BACKGROUND Well-known reports suggest that the use of energy drinks might reduce the intensity of the depressant effects of alcohol. However, there is little scientific evidence to support this hypothesis. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of the simultaneous ingestion of an alcohol (vodka(37.5%v/v)) and an energy(More)
Acute effects of oral flunitrazepam (0.5 and 1 mg), nitrazepam (5 and 10 mg) and placebo were assessed on direct (free recall of words and prose, stem-cued recall) and indirect (stem and fragment completion) memory tasks. Fifty health volunteers took part in this double-blind, independent group study. The relative effects of the two benzodiazepines (BZs) on(More)
The profiles of the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores were obtained for a sample of Brazilian university students and compared with those of other studies. Subjects were 270 students from various universities in São Paulo, age 23.8 yr. (SD=6.7 yr.). The mean Beck score for the total sample was 8.5 (SD=7.0); according to the(More)
This study compares the prevalence of complaints of insomnia, excessive diurnal sleepiness, parasomnias, and sleep habits of the adult population in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, estimated in surveys carried out in 1987 and 1995. Representative samples of 1000 adult residents per survey were interviewed using a validated structured sleep questionnaire, the(More)
This article describes pleasant IAPS pictures that elicit low-arousal rather than the high-arousal physiological responses previously reported in the literature. Thirty-two International Affective Picture System (IAPS) photographs were grouped into 4 sets of 8 photographs: highly pleasant-arousing (sexual content and adventures), highly pleasant-relaxing(More)
The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence(More)
The long-term effects of benzodiazepines (BDZ) on psychomotor and cognitive functions were assessed in 28 out patients, users of low therapeutic doses of diazepam (13.6 ± 4.9 mg/day, range: 5-20 mg/day) for 5-20 years (10.1 ± 5.0 years). These patients' performance was compared with two control groups: 53 BDZ-free anxious out patients and 56 healthy(More)
This study was designed to explore the effects on performance in stem-completion tasks of two benzodiazepines (BZ) in equipotent doses: lorazepam, a drug that atypically disrupts perceptual priming, and flunitrazepam, a compound with standard BZ effects. The study followed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group design. Thirty-six young and(More)
The aim of this study is to determine whether long-term use (5-20 years) of therapeutic doses of diazepam (5-20 mg/day) in anxious patients (n = 28) is associated with tolerance to its psychomotor and cognitive effects. Patients were tested at baseline, before and after a 10 mg oral dose of diazepam during chronic use, and at 3 weeks and 10 months after(More)