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N-Acetylglucosamine, a major sugar in complex carbohydrates, enters the pathways of aminosugar metabolism by the action of N-acetylglucosamine kinase (EC 2.7.1.59). In this study we report the purification to homogeneity of GlcNAc kinase from rat liver cytosol using salmine sulfate precipitation, chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, ATP-agarose and MonoQ,(More)
Polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique and highly regulated posttranslational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). The presence of polySia affects NCAM-dependent cell adhesion and plays an important role during brain development, neural regeneration and plastic processes including learning and memory. Polysialylated NCAM is expressed on(More)
Sialylation is essential for development and regeneration in mammals. Using N-propanoylmannosamine, a novel precursor of sialic acid, we were able to incorporate unnatural sialic acids with a prolonged N-acyl side chain (e.g., N-propanoylneuraminic acid) into cell surface glycoconjugates. Here we report that this biochemical engineering of sialic acid leads(More)
Neuraminic acids are widely expressed as terminal carbohydrates on glycoconjugates and are involved in a variety of biological functions. The key enzyme of N-acetylneuraminic acid synthesis is UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase, which catalyses the first two steps of neuraminic acid biosynthesis in the cytosol. In this study we(More)
Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are involved in cell differentiation and axonal growth. In this study, we investigated neurite outgrowth and the expression of CRMP-2 in PC12 cells. Nondifferentiated PC12 cells hardly express CRMP-2, but the expression of CRMP-2 increases with neurite outgrowth. We established a stable CRMP-2-overexpressing PC12(More)
Sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids plays an important role during development, regeneration and pathogenesis of several diseases. The precursor of all physiological sialic acids is N-acetyl-d-mannosamine. Using N-propanoyl mannosamine, a novel precursor of sialic acid, we showed earlier that sialic acids with a prolonged N-acyl side chain (e.g.,(More)
Neurite outgrowth (e.g. axonal or dendrite outgrowth) of neurons is necessary for the development and functioning of the central nervous system. It is well accepted that the differentiation of neurons and neurite outgrowth involve alterations in gene expression. Furthermore, mitochondria play a role in different aspects of neurite outgrowth. Here we show(More)
The most consistent neurochemical abnormality in Parkinson's disease is degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to a reduction of striatal dopamine levels. The rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine, noradrenalin, and adrenalin is catalyzed by tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (=tyrosine hydroxylase), which catalyzes the(More)
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) is the key enzyme in the de novo synthesis pathway of neuraminic acid, which is widely expressed as a terminal carbohydrate residue on glycoconjugates. UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase is a bifunctional enzyme and catalyzes the first two steps of neuraminic acid synthesis in the(More)
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