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Alcohol-associated cues are able to elicit brain activations in mesocorticolimbic networks that are related to the rewarding properties of the drug. Some authors hypothesize that the activation of the mesocorticolimbic reward system triggers an attention allocation to alcohol-associated cues. Yet, no functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies demonstrated that alcohol impairs inhibitory control of behavioural responses. AIMS We questioned whether alcohol via its disinhibiting effects would also impair the inhibition of an instrumental avoidance response in the presence of a safety signal. DESIGN Thirty-six moderate social drinkers were randomly allocated to(More)
BACKGROUND In alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-associated cues elicit brain activation in mesocorticolimbic networks involved in relapse mechanisms. Cue-exposure based extinction training (CET) has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of alcoholism; however, it has remained unexplored whether CET mediates its therapeutic effects via changes of(More)
AIMS The aim of this study was to analyse initial orienting processes as well as maintenance of attention towards alcohol cues in recently detoxified alcoholics and light social drinkers. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of pre-treatment alcohol consumption and abstinence duration onto alcohol-related attentional bias. METHODS We used an(More)
OBJECTIVE Starting from a model of impaired response inhibition and salience attribution for addictive behaviour we investigated whether obese participants show a greater impairment of inhibitory control in response to food-associated cues compared with neutral stimuli and whether this is seen in normal-weight control subjects. In addition, we questioned(More)
Overeating, weight gain and obesity are considered as a major health problem in Western societies. At present, an impairment of response inhibition and a biased salience attribution to food-associated stimuli are considered as important factors associated with weight gain. However, recent findings suggest that the association between an impaired response(More)
Given that previous studies demonstrated that smoking-related cues (like cigarette packages) grab the attention of smokers and thereby contribute to craving and tobacco seeking we investigated how pictorial health warnings presented on cigarette packages affect attention allocation towards cigarette packages. The WHO advises the use of pictorial health(More)
AIMS In the present study, the effect of previous detoxifications on prefrontal function and decision making was examined in alcohol-dependent patients. Further, we examined whether the length of abstinence affects cognitive function. METHODS Forty-eight alcohol-dependent patients were recruited from an inpatient detoxification treatment facility and(More)
AIMS To investigate whether acute alcohol would affect performance of a conditioned behavioural response to obtain a reward outcome and impair performance in a task measuring inhibitory control to provide new knowledge of how the acute effects of alcohol might contribute to the transition from alcohol use to dependence. DESIGN A randomized controlled(More)
It has been suggested that the attention towards alcohol-related stimuli increases with the duration of drinking and alcohol dependence. The present study aimed to assess whether an attentional bias was present in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, and if the magnitude of the attentional bias depended on the subject's drinking history and variables of(More)