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Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-sized fluorescent probes suitable for advanced biological imaging. We used QDs to track individual glycine receptors (GlyRs) and analyze their lateral dynamics in the neuronal membrane of living cells for periods ranging from milliseconds to minutes. We characterized multiple diffusion domains in relation to(More)
The characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-47 gene recently allowed the identification of a mammalian (gamma)-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter, presumed to be located in the synaptic vesicle membrane. In situ hybridization data in rat brain suggested that it might also take up glycine and thus represent a general Vesicular Inhibitory Amino(More)
The role of the scaffolding protein gephyrin at hippocampal inhibitory synapses is not well understood. A previous study (Kneussel et al., 1999) reported a complete loss of synaptic clusters of the major GABA(A)R subunits alpha2 and gamma2 in hippocampal neurons lacking gephyrin. In contrast, we show here that GABA(A)R alpha2 and gamma2 subunits do cluster(More)
The murine genome contains approximately 70 protocadherin (Pcdh) genes. Many are expressed in the nervous system, suggesting that Pcdhs may specify neuronal connectivity. Here, we analyze the 22 contiguous genes of the Pcdh-gamma cluster. Individual neurons express subsets of Pcdh-gamma genes. Pcdh-gamma proteins are present in most neurons and associated(More)
In the spinal cord, GABA and glycine mediate inhibition at separate or mixed synapses containing glycine and/or GABA(A) receptors (GlyR and GABA(A)R, respectively). We have analysed here the sequence of events leading to inhibitory synapse formation during synaptogenesis of embryonic spinal cord neurons between 1 and 11 days in vitro (DIV). We used(More)
Lateral diffusion of neurotransmitter receptors in and out of synapses has been postulated as a core mechanism for rapid changes in receptor number at synapses during plastic processes. In this study, we have used single particle tracking to investigate how changes in glycine receptor (GlyR) lateral diffusion properties might account for changes in receptor(More)
In the spinal cord, most inhibitory synapses have a mixed glycine-GABA phenotype. Using a pharmacological approach, we report an NMDAR activity-dependent regulation of the mobility of GlyRs but not GABA(A)Rs at inhibitory synapses in cultured rat spinal cord neurons. The NMDAR-induced decrease in GlyR lateral diffusion was correlated with an increase in(More)
This protocol describes a sensitive approach to tracking the motion of membrane molecules such as lipids and proteins with molecular resolution in live cells. This technique makes use of fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals, quantum dots (QDs), as a probe to detect membrane molecules of interest. The photostability and brightness of QDs allow them to be(More)
The neuronal K/Cl transporter KCC2 exports chloride ions and thereby influences the efficacy and polarity of GABA signaling in the brain. KCC2 is also critical for dendritic spine morphogenesis and the maintenance of glutamatergic transmission in cortical neurons. Because KCC2 plays a pivotal role in the function of central synapses, it is of particular(More)
The dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) is a multimolecular complex that links the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton. The DGC is present at the skeletal neuromuscular junction and required for its maturation and maintenance. Members of the DGC are also expressed in brain. We used cultured hippocampal neurons to analyze the distribution, regulation,(More)