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The L-type Cav1.2 calcium channel is present throughout the animal kingdom and is essential for some aspects of CNS function, cardiac and smooth muscle contractility, neuroendocrine regulation, and multiple other processes. The L-type CaV1.2 channel is built by up to four subunits; all subunits exist in various splice variants that potentially affect the(More)
CONTEXT Hepatic steatosis, defined as increased hepatocellular lipid content (HCL), associates with visceral obesity and glucose intolerance. As exact HCL quantification by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is not generally available, various clinical indices are increasingly used to predict steatosis. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to(More)
OBJECTIVE Altered immune reactivity precedes and accompanies type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the metabolic phenotype relates to the systemic cellular immune status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 194 metabolically well-controlled patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 62, mean diabetes duration 1.29 years) or type 2 diabetes (n = 132,(More)
Measurement of acetaminophen glucuronide (AG) (2)H enrichment from deuterated water ((2)H2O) by (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of its monoacetone glucose (MAG) derivative provides estimation of gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic contributions to endogenous glucose production (EGP). However, AG derivatization to MAG is laborious and unsuitable(More)
Objective Hepatic energy metabolism negatively relates to insulin resistance and liver fat content in type 2 diabetes patients, but its role in metabolically healthy humans is unclear. We hypothesized that intrahepatocellular γ-adenosine triphosphate (γATP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations exhibit similar associations with insulin sensitivity in(More)
Type 1 diabetes has been recently linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is known to associate with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. However, the role of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia for hepatic energy metabolism is yet unclear. To analyze early abnormalities in hepatic energy metabolism, we examined 55 patients(More)
BACKGROUND Loss of adequate insulin secretion for the prevailing insulin resistance is critical for the development of type 2 diabetes and has been suggested to result from circulating lipids (triacylglycerols [TG] or free fatty acids) and/or adipocytokines or from ectopic lipid storage in the pancreas. This study aimed to address whether circulating(More)
Hepatic and pancreatic fat content become increasingly important for phenotyping of individuals with metabolic diseases. This study aimed to (1) evaluate hepatic fat fractions (HFF) and pancreatic fat fractions (PFF) using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the recently introduced fast mDixon method, and to examine body fat effects on HFF and PFF,(More)
BACKGROUND Dietary intake of saturated fat is a likely contributor to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance, but the mechanisms that initiate these abnormalities in humans remain unclear. We examined the effects of a single oral saturated fat load on insulin sensitivity, hepatic glucose metabolism, and lipid metabolism in humans.(More)
HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS We report on a 48-year-old female patient with recently developed severe hypertriglyceridemia. Medical history was remarkable for breast cancer with breast-preserving surgery and chemoradiotherapy. The patient has been treated with 20 mg tamoxifen per day for three months. INVESTIGATIONS Laboratory results showed(More)