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When applying particle swarm optimization (PSO) to real world optimization problems, often boundary constraints have to be taken into account. In this paper, we show that the bound handling mechanism essentially influences the swarm behavior, especially in high-dimensional search spaces. In our theoretical analysis, we prove that all particles are(More)
—Many practical optimization problems are constrained , and have a bounded search space. In this paper, we propose and compare a wide variety of bound handling techniques for particle swarm optimization. By examining their performance on flat landscapes, we show that many bound handling techniques introduce a significant search bias. Furthermore, we compare(More)
The interaction among particles is a vital aspect of Particle Swarm Optimization. As such, it has a strong influence on the swarm's success. In this study various approaches regarding the particles' communication behavior and their relationship are examined, as well as possibilities to combine the approaches. A new variant of the popular FIPS algorithm, the(More)
We propose a generic, hybrid constraint handling scheme for particle swarm optimization called Heterogeneous Constraint Handling. Inspired by the notion of social roles, we assign different constraint handling methods to the particles, one for each social role. In this paper, we investigate two social roles for particles, ‘self’ and(More)
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms have gained increasing interest for dealing with continuous optimization problems in recent years. Often such problems involve boundary constraints. In this case, one has to cope with the situation that particles may leave the feasible search space. To deal with such situations different bound handling methods(More)
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a nature-inspired technique originally designed for solving continuous optimization problems. There already exist several approaches that use PSO also as basis for solving discrete optimization problems, in particular the Traveling Sales-person Problem (TSP). In this paper, (i) we present the first theoretical analysis(More)