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The etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain unknown. A parallel transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics approach was employed on human brain tissue to explore the molecular disease signatures. Almost half the altered proteins identified by proteomics were associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative stress responses. This was(More)
Kainate-preferring receptors are a subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors that might play a role in brain development. The expression of the five known genes encoding kainate receptor subunits (GluR-5, -6, -7, KA-1, and KA-2) was studied by in situ hybridization during pre- and postnatal development of the rat brain. We compared the combined expression(More)
BACKGROUND Results of array studies have suggested abnormalities in expression of lipid and myelin-related genes in schizophrenia. Here, we investigated oligodendrocyte-specific and myelination-associated gene expression in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. METHODS We used samples from the Stanley brain collection, consisting of 15(More)
The mechanisms by which trisomy 21 leads to the characteristic Down syndrome (DS) phenotype are unclear. We used whole genome microarrays to characterize for the first time the transcriptome of human adult brain tissue (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) from seven DS subjects and eight controls. These data were coanalyzed with a publicly available dataset(More)
Autism spectrum conditions have been hypothesized to be an exaggeration of normal male low-empathizing and high-systemizing behaviors. We tested this hypothesis at the molecular level by performing comprehensive multi-analyte profiling of blood serum from adult subjects with Asperger's syndrome (AS) compared with controls. This led to identification of(More)
Cerebellar granule cells express six GABAA receptor subunits abundantly (alpha1, alpha6, beta2, beta3, gamma2, and delta) and assemble various pentameric receptor subtypes with unknown subunit compositions; however, the rules guiding receptor subunit assembly are unclear. Here, removal of intact alpha6 protein from cerebellar granule cells allowed(More)
In development, timing is of the utmost importance, and the timing of developmental processes often changes as organisms evolve. In human evolution, developmental retardation, or neoteny, has been proposed as a possible mechanism that contributed to the rise of many human-specific features, including an increase in brain size and the emergence of(More)
Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were(More)
Bipolar affective disorder is a severe psychiatric disorder with a strong genetic component but unknown pathophysiology. We used microarray technology to determine the expression of approximately 22,000 mRNA transcripts in post-mortem tissue from two brain regions in patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex(More)
Bipolar affective disorder is a severe and debilitating psychiatric condition characterized by the alternating mood states of mania and depression. Both the molecular pathophysiology of the disorder and the mechanism of action of the mainstays of its treatment remain largely unknown. Here, (1)H NMR spectroscopy-based metabonomic analysis was performed to(More)