Learn More
Neuronal migration and axon growth, key events during neuronal development, require distinct changes in the cytoskeleton. Although many molecular regulators of polarity have been identified and characterized, relatively little is known about their physiological role in this process. To study the physiological function of Rac1 in neuronal development, we(More)
Neurites are the characteristic structural element of neurons that will initiate brain connectivity and elaborate information. Early in development, neurons are spherical cells but this symmetry is broken through the initial formation of neurites. This fundamental step is thought to rely on actin and microtubule dynamics. However, it is unclear which(More)
Several experimental manipulations result in axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) when applied before or at the time of injury but not when initiated after a delay, which would be clinically more relevant. As centrally injured neurons show signs of atrophy and degeneration, it raises the question whether chronically injured neurons are(More)
Proteolytic shedding of cell surface proteins generates paracrine signals involved in numerous signaling pathways. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) type III is involved in myelination of the peripheral nervous system, for which it requires proteolytic activation by proteases of the ADAM family and BACE1. These proteases are major therapeutic targets for the prevention(More)
Cytoplasmic inclusions containing TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) or Fused in sarcoma (FUS) are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and several subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). FUS-positive inclusions in FTLD and ALS patients are consistently co-labeled with stress granule (SG) marker proteins. Whether TDP-43(More)
The protease β-secretase 1 (Bace1) was identified through its critical role in production of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ), the major component of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Bace1 is considered a promising target for the treatment of this pathology, but processes additional substrates, among them Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1). Our biochemical analysis(More)
The integral membrane lipid phosphatase Sac1p regulates local pools of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi membranes. PtdIns(4)P is important for Golgi trafficking, yet the significance of PtdIns(4)P for ER function is unknown. It also remains unknown how localization of Sac1p to distinct organellar(More)
The assembly of functional neuronal networks in the developing animal relies on the polarization of neurons, i.e., the formation of a single axon and multiple dendrites. Breaking the symmetry of neurons depends on cytoskeletal rearrangements. In particular, axon specification requires local dynamic instability of actin and stabilization of microtubules. The(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques, which are predominantly composed of amyloid-β peptide. Two principal physiological pathways either prevent or promote amyloid-β generation from its precursor, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), in a competitive manner. Although APP processing has been studied in great detail,(More)
Cholesterol accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) causes increased levels of the amyloid-precursor-protein C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs) and intracellular amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the two central molecules in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. We previously reported that cholesterol accumulation in NPC-cells leads to cholesterol-dependent(More)