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Smoking is known to exacerbate HIV-1 pathogenesis, especially in monocytes, through the oxidative stress pathway. Exosomes are known to alter HIV-1 pathogenesis through inter-cellular communication.(More)
INTRODUCTION HIV-1-infected smokers are at risk of oxidative damage to neuronal cells in the central nervous system by both HIV-1 and cigarette smoke. Since neurons have a weak antioxidant defense(More)
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