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Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We(More)
A SNP in the gene encoding lactase (LCT) (C/T-13910) is associated with the ability to digest milk as adults (lactase persistence) in Europeans, but the genetic basis of lactase persistence in Africans was previously unknown. We conducted a genotype-phenotype association study in 470 Tanzanians, Kenyans and Sudanese and identified three SNPs (G/C-14010,(More)
The 17q21.31 inversion polymorphism exists either as direct (H1) or inverted (H2) haplotypes with differential predispositions to disease and selection. We investigated its genetic diversity in 2,700 individuals, with an emphasis on African populations. We characterize eight structural haplotypes due to complex rearrangements that vary in size from(More)
UNLABELLED Functional variability at the arylamine N-acetyltransferase genes is associated with drug response in humans and may have been adaptive in the past owing to selection pressure from diet and exposure to toxins during human evolution. AIMS We have characterized nucleotide variation at the NAT1 and NAT2 genes, and at the NATP1 pseudogene in global(More)
This study examines the relationship between malaria treatment failure after sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (S-P) chemotherapy and presence of mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes (associated with resistance in vitro to S and P) before treatment. In Kenya, 38 malaria patients in a(More)
BACKGROUND Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) reduces the potential for malaria transmission, compared with non-ACTs. It is unclear whether this effect differs between ACTs. METHODS A total of 298 children (age, 6 months to 10 years) with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized to artemether-lumefantrine (AL; n = 153) or(More)
BACKGROUND Many countries have implemented artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the first-line treatment of malaria. Although many studies have been performed on efficacy and tolerability of the combination arthemeter-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), less is known of the effect of these drugs on gametocyte development,(More)
During an epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Chogoria, Kenya, P. falciparum DNA was collected from 24 cases of severe malaria admitted to hospital for parenteral quinine treatment. These patients had all failed first- (chloroquine) and second-line (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine or amodiaquine) drug treatments. Twenty-two (92%) of the 24 patients(More)
Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and co-trimoxazole were both effective in reducing fever, clearing parasitaemia and improving anaemia in children aged < 5 years with uncomplicated malaria in 2 Kenyan endemic sites, Oyugis in the west and Tiwi on the coast. We compared the efficacy of these 2 regimens (in May-July 1998) by evaluating clinical and(More)
A quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) assay for the detection of Plasmodium parasites has been developed. Primers and probes were selected on the basis of the sequence of the small-subunit rRNA gene. Quantification was achieved by coamplification of the RNA in the sample with one modified in vitro RNA as a competitor in a(More)