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Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We(More)
A SNP in the gene encoding lactase (LCT) (C/T-13910) is associated with the ability to digest milk as adults (lactase persistence) in Europeans, but the genetic basis of lactase persistence in Africans was previously unknown. We conducted a genotype-phenotype association study in 470 Tanzanians, Kenyans and Sudanese and identified three SNPs (G/C-14010,(More)
The 17q21.31 inversion polymorphism exists either as direct (H1) or inverted (H2) haplotypes with differential predispositions to disease and selection. We investigated its genetic diversity in 2,700 individuals, with an emphasis on African populations. We characterize eight structural haplotypes due to complex rearrangements that vary in size from(More)
BACKGROUND Many countries have implemented artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the first-line treatment of malaria. Although many studies have been performed on efficacy and tolerability of the combination arthemeter-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), less is known of the effect of these drugs on gametocyte development,(More)
BACKGROUND Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) reduces the potential for malaria transmission, compared with non-ACTs. It is unclear whether this effect differs between ACTs. METHODS A total of 298 children (age, 6 months to 10 years) with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized to artemether-lumefantrine (AL; n = 153) or(More)
BACKGROUND Despite gains in malaria control through impregnated treated nets (ITN), malaria remains a major concern. Netting is expensive and impractical for many communities. Here we present the findings of a community-based trial of impregnated bedsheets (shukas) in Kenya. METHODS A total of 472 individuals were enrolled in a randomized community trial(More)
BACKGROUND There is renewed acknowledgement that targeting gametocytes is essential for malaria control and elimination efforts. Simple mathematical models were fitted to data from clinical trials in order to determine the mean gametocyte circulation time and duration of gametocyte carriage in treated malaria patients. METHODS Data were used from clinical(More)
Sub-Saharan Africa has been identified as the part of the world with the greatest human genetic diversity. This high level of diversity causes difficulties for genome-wide association (GWA) studies in African populations-for example, by reducing the accuracy of genotype imputation in African populations compared to non-African populations. Here, we(More)
Plasmodium falciparum and P. malariae occur endemically in many parts of Africa. Observations from malariotherapy patients suggest that co-infection with P. malariae may increase P. falciparum gametocyte production. We determined P. falciparum gametocyte prevalence and density by quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) after(More)
BACKGROUND Parasite clearance time after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) may be increasing in Asian and African settings. The association between parasite clearance following ACT and transmissibility is currently unknown. METHODS We determined parasite clearance dynamics by duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in samples(More)