Saara M. Raulo

Learn More
Nationwide surveillance identified 10 human isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 398. Further typing in comparison with animal isolates identified 4 clusters: 1 related to a horse epidemic and 3 to persons who had no direct contact with animals or each other. These findings may indicate unrecognized community(More)
Chronic osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the articular cartilage. DNA-binding high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is released on cellular death/activation and acts as an endogenous danger signal and a proinflammatory cytokine. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and in MMP-9 are induced to mediate proteolytic degradation/remodelling of joint(More)
Gelatinolytic activity was analysed to study whether elevated activity previously found at the tracheal level of the respiratory tract of horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could also be found at the lower part of the respiratory tract. Furthermore, presence and significance of the gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine collagenase activity and evaluate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-13 in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). ANIMALS 12 horses with COPD and 12 healthy control horses. PROCEDURE Collagenase activity was determined by use of an assay for degradation of type-I collagen. Western immunoblot analysis was(More)
An endotoxin-induced mastitis model was used to study permeability changes associated with increased milk matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in early inflammation. One quarter of two cows was inoculated with endotoxin (Escherichia coli 055:B5). Blood, milk, and whey were collected before and repeatedly after inoculation for 48 h. The profile and(More)
The seroprevalence of Salmonella spp., pathogenic Yersinia spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. was studied in 1353 finishing pigs from 259 farms that were allocated according to farm types: large fattening farms (≥ 1000 pig places), small fattening farms (< 1000 pig places) and farrow-to-finish farms. The antibodies were analysed with commercial(More)
Rapid structural change and concentration of pig production in regions with most intensive production has raised concerns about whether the risk of large-scale disease losses has increased in Finland. This paper examines the pig industry's losses due to classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics. The work is based on economic and epidemiological models providing(More)
In 2010, a marked increase in listeriosis incidence was observed in Finland. Listeria monocytogenes PFGE profile 96 was responsible for one-fifth of the reported cases and a cluster of PFGE profile 62 was also detected. Investigations revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination. It appears likely that the plants were at(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether samples of tracheal epithelial lining fluid (TELF) obtained from horses have elastinolytic activity characteristic of metalloproteinases, to compare elastinolytic activity in TELF obtained from healthy horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to determine whether chemically modified(More)