Sa Xiao

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Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause severe disease in chickens. Although NDV vaccines exist, there are frequent reports of outbreaks in vaccinated chickens. During 2009-2010, despite intense vaccination, NDV caused major outbreaks among commercial poultry farms in Indonesia. These outbreaks raised concern regarding the protective immunity of current(More)
The nine serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds worldwide. APMV-1, also called Newcastle disease virus, was shown to be attenuated in non-avian species and is being developed as a potential vector for human vaccines. In the present study, we extended this evaluation to the other eight serotypes by(More)
Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause devastating disease in chickens worldwide. Although the current vaccines are substantially effective, they do not completely prevent infection, virus shedding and disease. To produce genotype-matched vaccines, a full-genome reverse genetics system has been used to generate a recombinant virus in(More)
Avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotypes 1-9 have been isolated from many different avian species. APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) is the only well-characterized serotype, because of the high morbidity, mortality, and economic loss caused by highly virulent strains. Very little is known about the pathogenesis, replication, virulence, and tropism of the other(More)
To evaluate the role of the F protein cleavage site in the replication and pathogenicity of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs), we constructed a reverse genetics system for recovery of infectious recombinant APMV-4 from cloned cDNA. The recovered recombinant APMV-4 resembled the biological virus in growth characteristics in vitro and in pathogenicity in vivo.(More)
The complete genome sequence was determined for a highly virulent Newcastle disease virus strain from vaccinated chicken farms in Mexico during outbreaks in 2010. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis this strain was classified into genotype V in the class II cluster that was closely related to Mexican strains that appeared in 2004 –2006. N ewcastle disease(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates contain genomes of 15,186, 15,192 or 15,198 nucleotides (nt). The length differences reflect a 6-nt insert in the 5' (downstream) non-translated region (NTR) of the N gene (15,192-nt genome) or a 12-nt insert in the ORF encoding the P and V proteins (causing a 4-amino acid insert; 15,198-nt genome). We evaluated the(More)
Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) serotypes 1-9 are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds worldwide. APMV-1 (also called Newcastle disease virus, NDV) is attenuated in non-human primates and is being developed as a candidate human vaccine vector. The vector potential of the other serotypes was unknown. In the present study, we evaluated nine different(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a devastating poultry disease worldwide. Frequent outbreaks of NDV in chickens vaccinated with conventional live vaccines suggest a need to develop new vaccines that are genetically matched against circulating NDV strains, such as the genotype V virulent strains currently circulating in Mexico and Central America. In(More)