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Complete genome sequences were determined for two strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 6 (APMV-6): the prototype Hong Kong (HK) strain and a more recent isolate from Italy (IT4524-2). The genome length of strain HK is 16236 nucleotide (nt), which is the same as for the other two APMV-6 strains (FE and TW) that have been reported to date, whereas that of(More)
Interactions among species determine local-scale diversity, but local interactions are thought to have minor effects at larger scales. However, quantitative comparisons of the importance of biotic interactions relative to other drivers are rarely made at larger scales. Using a data set spanning 78 sites and five continents, we assessed the relative(More)
Naturally occurring strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. Here, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of reverse genetics. Mice bearing s.c. implanted CT26 tumors were treated with intratumoral(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause severe disease in chickens. Although NDV vaccines exist, there are frequent reports of outbreaks in vaccinated chickens. During 2009-2010, despite intense vaccination, NDV caused major outbreaks among commercial poultry farms in Indonesia. These outbreaks raised concern regarding the protective immunity of current(More)
Newcastle disease (ND) is a deadly avian disease worldwide. In Africa, ND is enzootic and causes large economic losses, but little is known about the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains circulating in African countries. In this study, 27 NDV isolates collected from apparently healthy chickens in live-bird markets of the West African countries Benin and(More)
Theories based on competition for resources predict a monotonic negative relationship between population density and individual biomass in plant populations. They do not consider the role of facilitative interactions, which are known to be important in high stress environments. Using an individual-based 'zone-of-influence' model, we investigated the(More)
The nine serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds worldwide. APMV-1, also called Newcastle disease virus, was shown to be attenuated in non-avian species and is being developed as a potential vector for human vaccines. In the present study, we extended this evaluation to the other eight serotypes by(More)
The complete consensus genome sequence was determined for avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 3 strain Wisconsin. The genome is 16,182 nucleotides (nt) in length, consisting of six non-overlapping genes in the order of 3'-N-P/V/W-M-F-HN-L-5', with a 55-nt leader at its 3' end and a 681-nt trailer at its 5' end. Comparison of the APMV-3 strain Wisconsin nt(More)
The complete RNA genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 2, strain Yucaipa isolated from chicken has been determined. With genome size of 14,904 nucleotides (nt), strain Yucaipa is consistent with the "rule of six" and is the smallest virus reported to date among the members of subfamily Paramyxovirinae. The genome contains six(More)
Nipah virus is an emerging pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. It expresses several antagonist proteins that subvert the immune response and that may contribute to its pathogenicity. Studies of its biology are difficult due to its high pathogenicity and requirement for biosafety level 4 containment. We integrated experimental and computational(More)