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Theories based on competition for resources predict a monotonic negative relationship between population density and individual biomass in plant populations. They do not consider the role of facilitative interactions, which are known to be important in high stress environments. Using an individual-based 'zone-of-influence' model, we investigated the(More)
Interactions among species determine local-scale diversity, but local interactions are thought to have minor effects at larger scales. However, quantitative comparisons of the importance of biotic interactions relative to other drivers are rarely made at larger scales. Using a data set spanning 78 sites and five continents, we assessed the relative(More)
Newcastle disease (ND) is a deadly avian disease worldwide. In Africa, ND is enzootic and causes large economic losses, but little is known about the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains circulating in African countries. In this study, 27 NDV isolates collected from apparently healthy chickens in live-bird markets of the West African countries Benin and(More)
UNLABELLED Naturally occurring Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains vary greatly in virulence. The presence of multibasic residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein has been shown to be a primary determinant differentiating virulent versus avirulent strains. However, there is wide variation in virulence among virulent strains.(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause severe disease in chickens. Although NDV vaccines exist, there are frequent reports of outbreaks in vaccinated chickens. During 2009-2010, despite intense vaccination, NDV caused major outbreaks among commercial poultry farms in Indonesia. These outbreaks raised concern regarding the protective immunity of current(More)
Naturally occurring strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. Here, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of reverse genetics. Mice bearing s.c. implanted CT26 tumors were treated with intratumoral(More)
Complete genome sequences were determined for two strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 6 (APMV-6): the prototype Hong Kong (HK) strain and a more recent isolate from Italy (IT4524-2). The genome length of strain HK is 16236 nucleotide (nt), which is the same as for the other two APMV-6 strains (FE and TW) that have been reported to date, whereas that of(More)
The nine serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds worldwide. APMV-1, also called Newcastle disease virus, was shown to be attenuated in non-avian species and is being developed as a potential vector for human vaccines. In the present study, we extended this evaluation to the other eight serotypes by(More)
Much is known about facilitation, but virtually nothing about the underlying genetic and evolutionary consequences of this important interaction. We assessed the potential of phenotypic differences in facilitative effects of a foundation species to determine the composition of an Alpine community in Arizona. Two phenotypes of Geum rossii occur along a(More)
The complete RNA genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 2, strain Yucaipa isolated from chicken has been determined. With genome size of 14,904 nucleotides (nt), strain Yucaipa is consistent with the "rule of six" and is the smallest virus reported to date among the members of subfamily Paramyxovirinae. The genome contains six(More)