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Question: What are the interacting effects of stress and disturbance on both competition and facilitation, and ultimately their impact on diversity and species ranges? Method: We extended the spatially explicit model of Xiao et al. (Oikos, 118, 2009, 1343) to consider how stress and disturbance operating alone or together affect species distributions(More)
Understanding the role of competition in the organization of communities is limited in part by the difficulty of extrapolating the outcomes of small-scale experiments to how such outcomes might affect the distribution and abundance of species. We modeled the community-level outcomes of competition, using experimentally derived competitive effects and(More)
We hypothesize that the continuum between generalist and specialist adaptations is an important general trade-off axis in the maintenance of local diversity, and we explore this idea with a simple model in which there are patch types to which species arrive as propagules and compete. Each patch type is defined by a competitive ranking of all species. A(More)
We introduce a spatially explicit model that evaluates how the trade-offs between the life strategies of two interacting plant species affect the outcome of their interaction along environmental severity gradients. In our model, we represent the landscape as a two-dimensional lattice, with environmental severity increasing from left to right. Two species(More)
In this paper, we investigate energy-efficient mobile association for users with the capability of device-to-device (D2D) communications in heterogeneous networks. To maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of uplink transmission while guaranteeing the quality-of-service requirement of users, we first propose a brute-force-based mobile association algorithm,(More)
In virtual learning environment, both personality and emotional features of animated pedagogical agents (APAs) may influence learning. To investigate this question, we developed four APAs with two distinct personality types and two sets of gestures expressing distinct emotional feedback. Effects of APAs' personality types and emotional feedback strategies(More)