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Theories based on competition for resources predict a monotonic negative relationship between population density and individual biomass in plant populations. They do not consider the role of facilitative interactions, which are known to be important in high stress environments. Using an individual-based 'zone-of-influence' model, we investigated the(More)
Interactions among species determine local-scale diversity, but local interactions are thought to have minor effects at larger scales. However, quantitative comparisons of the importance of biotic interactions relative to other drivers are rarely made at larger scales. Using a data set spanning 78 sites and five continents, we assessed the relative(More)
Complete genome sequences were determined for two strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 6 (APMV-6): the prototype Hong Kong (HK) strain and a more recent isolate from Italy (IT4524-2). The genome length of strain HK is 16236 nucleotide (nt), which is the same as for the other two APMV-6 strains (FE and TW) that have been reported to date, whereas that of(More)
The nine serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds worldwide. APMV-1, also called Newcastle disease virus, was shown to be attenuated in non-avian species and is being developed as a potential vector for human vaccines. In the present study, we extended this evaluation to the other eight serotypes by(More)
Naturally occurring strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. Here, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of reverse genetics. Mice bearing s.c. implanted CT26 tumors were treated with intratumoral(More)
UNLABELLED Naturally occurring Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains vary greatly in virulence. The presence of multibasic residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein has been shown to be a primary determinant differentiating virulent versus avirulent strains. However, there is wide variation in virulence among virulent strains.(More)
  • Arthur Samuel, Baibaswata Nayak, +7 authors Siba K Samal
  • 2013
Newcastle disease (ND) is a deadly avian disease worldwide. In Africa, ND is enzootic and causes large economic losses, but little is known about the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains circulating in African countries. In this study, 27 NDV isolates collected from apparently healthy chickens in live-bird markets of the West African countries Benin and(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause severe disease in chickens. Although NDV vaccines exist, there are frequent reports of outbreaks in vaccinated chickens. During 2009-2010, despite intense vaccination, NDV caused major outbreaks among commercial poultry farms in Indonesia. These outbreaks raised concern regarding the protective immunity of current(More)
The complete consensus genome sequence was determined for avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 3 strain Wisconsin. The genome is 16,182 nucleotides (nt) in length, consisting of six non-overlapping genes in the order of 3'-N-P/V/W-M-F-HN-L-5', with a 55-nt leader at its 3' end and a 681-nt trailer at its 5' end. Comparison of the APMV-3 strain Wisconsin nt(More)
Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause devastating disease in chickens worldwide. Although the current vaccines are substantially effective, they do not completely prevent infection, virus shedding and disease. To produce genotype-matched vaccines, a full-genome reverse genetics system has been used to generate a recombinant virus in(More)