Sa L. Chiang

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The pathogenesis of cholera begins with colonization of the host intestine by Vibrio cholerae. The toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP), a fimbrial structure produced by V. cholerae, is absolutely required for colonization (i.e. the persistence, survival and growth of V. cholerae in the upper intestinal milieu), but many other aspects of the colonization process(More)
Several receptors for the extracellular matrix protein collagen have been described which belong to the superfamily of receptors collectively known as integrins. Although several integrins have been shown to interact with extracellular matrix molecules via a common recognition site, arginine-glycine-aspartic Acid (RGD), within the beta 1 integrin subfamily,(More)
In vitro assays contribute greatly to our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis, but they frequently cannot replicate the complex environment encountered by pathogens during infection. The information gained from such studies is therefore limited. In vivo models, on the other hand, can be difficult to use, and this has to some extent diminished the(More)
Mutations of the Doa locus of Drosophila melanogaster darken the eye color of the copia-induced white(apricot) (wa) allele and increase the accumulation of white promoter-initiated transcripts encoding functional mRNA. We show here that quantities of transcripts initiated in both long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the specific wa-copia element are increased,(More)
In Vibrio cholerae, the genes encoding cholera toxin (ctxAB) are located on a segment of DNA (termed the "core" region) that is flanked by two or more copies of a repeated sequence called RS1. Together these DNA units comprise the CTX genetic element. Evidence presented here suggests that RS1 sequences encode a site-specific recombination system, which(More)
Recent efforts to develop a vaccine against the diarrheal disease cholera have focused on the use of live attenuated strains of the causative organism, Vibrio cholerae. The Ogawa lipopolysaccharide phenotype is expressed by many epidemic strains, and motility defects reduce the risk of reactive diarrhea in vaccine recipients. We therefore converted a motile(More)
The toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) of Vibrio cholerae is essential for colonization. It was recently reported that rfb mutations in V. cholerae 569B cause the translocation arrest of the structural subunit of TCP, raising the possibility that the colonization defects of lipopolysaccharide mutants are due to effects on TCP biogenesis. However, an rfbB gene(More)
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the beta chemokine family which acts through specific seven transmembrane receptors to recruit monocytes, basophils, and T lymphocytes to sites of inflammation. To identify regions of the human MCP-1 protein which are important for its biological activity, we have synthesized domain-specific peptides(More)
The toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) of Vibrio cholerae O1 is required for successful infection of the host. TcpA, the structural subunit of TCP, belongs to the type IV family of pilins, which includes the PilE pilin of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Recently, single amino acid changes in the N-terminus of PilE were found to abolish autoagglutination in gonococci. As(More)
The integrin supergene family includes receptors for a variety of extracellular matrix as well as cell surface proteins. Integrin alpha 4 has been shown to play an important role in leukocyte adhesion and extravasation during immune and inflammatory reactions. One recognition sequence known to interact with alpha 4 is the Leu-Asp-Val (LDV) site contained in(More)