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Metchnikoff’s use of sea star larvae to observe encapsulation and phagocytosis, which was followed much later by allograft rejection kinetics, revealed that echinoderms had an innate immune system that was lacking of adaptive attributes. Larval sea urchins mount defenses in response to contact with microbes, which are mediated by phagocytic blastocoelar(More)
Amyloid-β (Aβ)-containing plaques are a major neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two major isoforms of Aβ peptide associated with AD are Aβ40 and Aβ42, of which the latter is highly prone to aggregation. Increased presence and aggregation of intracellular Aβ42 peptides is an early event in AD progression. Improved understanding of(More)
Drosophila neuroblasts are a model system for studying asymmetric cell division. Neuroblasts bud off a series of smaller progeny, called ganglion mother cells (GMCs). An essential regulator of GMC development is the Prospero homeodomain transcription factor: Prospero is asymmetrically localized to the basal cortex of the mitotic neuroblast and partitioned(More)
Proteins with obvious similarities to mammalian complement are widely distributed in the animal kingdom. In the vertebrate lineage, deuterostomes like sea urchins and tunicates express proteins that are homologues of C3, the central component of the vertebrate complement cascade. Their genomes also encode molecules resembling factor B from the “alternative”(More)
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