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SYNOPSIS. As the primary link between environmental change and physiological response, the neuroendocrine system is a critical part of osmoregulatory adaptations. Cortisol has been viewed as ‘the’ seawater-adapting hormone in fish and prolactin as ‘the’ fresh water adapting hormone. Recent evidence indicates that the growth hormone/insulin-like growth(More)
A variety of movements characterize the behavioral plasticity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in fresh water, including movements of fry from redds, establishment of feeding territories, spawning movements of sexually mature male parr, movement to and from winter habitat, and smolt migration in spring. Smolting is an adaptive specialization for downstream(More)
Cation-chloride cotransporters, such as the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), are localized to the apical or basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial cells and are involved in active ion absorption or secretion. The objectives of this study were to clone and identify ;freshwater-type' and ;seawater-type'(More)
Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus embryos were transferred from freshwater to seawater and vice versa, and short-term changes in the localization of three major ion transport proteins, Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were examined within mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs)(More)
We compared seawater tolerance, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) abundance, and mitochondria-rich cell (MRC) morphology of three salmonids, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. They were transferred directly from 0 p.p.t. (parts per thousand; freshwater) to 30(More)
Osmoregulatory actions of growth hormone (GH) and its mode of action in salmonids are reviewed. We present evidence suggesting that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) mediates some of the actions of GH on seawater acclimation. Plasma concentration and turnover of GH rise following exposure to seawater. Exogenous GH (in vivo) increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase(More)
Atlantic salmon parr and smolts reared under a natural temperature and photoperiod regime were subjected to an acute handling and confinement stress in early May. Smolts had a mean plasma cortisol concentration of 10 ngrml before stress and 242 ngrml 3 h after initiation of stress which returned to pre-stress levels within 8 h. Parr had a plasma cortisol(More)
Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter abundance and location was examined in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during seawater acclimation and smolting. Western blots revealed three bands centered at 285, 160, and 120 kDa. The Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter was colocalized with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase to chloride cells on both the primary filament and(More)
We have examined the interaction of photoperiod and temperature in regulating the parr-smolt transformation and its endocrine control. Atlantic salmon juveniles were reared at a constant temperature of 10 degrees C or ambient temperature (2 degrees C from January to April followed by seasonal increase) under simulated natural day length. At 10 degrees C, an(More)
Sex steroids are known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of anadromous salmonids, and environmental estrogens such as nonylphenol have recently been implicated in reduced returns of Atlantic salmon in the wild. To determine the endocrine pathways by which estrogenic compounds affect smolt development and seawater tolerance, groups of juvenile(More)