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The purpose of this study was to classify breast carcinomas based on variations in gene expression patterns derived from cDNA microarrays and to correlate tumor characteristics to clinical outcome. A total of 85 cDNA microarray experiments representing 78 cancers, three fibroadenomas, and four normal breast tissues were analyzed by hierarchical clustering.(More)
Human breast tumours are diverse in their natural history and in their responsiveness to treatments. Variation in transcriptional programs accounts for much of the biological diversity of human cells and tumours. In each cell, signal transduction and regulatory systems transduce information from the cell's identity to its environmental status, thereby(More)
Limb development depends on signals from the apical ectodermal ridge and underlying mesenchyme. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) can replace the ridge and, because Fgf4 RNA is localized to the mouse posterior ridge, we proposed that FGF4 is the endogenous ridge signal. Ridge signals control limb outgrowth and maintain the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) at(More)
We used cDNA microarrays to explore the variation in expression of approximately 8,000 unique genes among the 60 cell lines used in the National Cancer Institute's screen for anti-cancer drugs. Classification of the cell lines based solely on the observed patterns of gene expression revealed a correspondence to the ostensible origins of the tumours from(More)
Gene amplifications and deletions frequently contribute to tumorigenesis. Characterization of these DNA copy-number changes is important for both the basic understanding of cancer and its diagnosis. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was developed to survey DNA copy-number variations across a whole genome. With CGH, differentially labelled test and(More)
cDNA microarrays and a clustering algorithm were used to identify patterns of gene expression in human mammary epithelial cells growing in culture and in primary human breast tumors. Clusters of coexpressed genes identified through manipulations of mammary epithelial cells in vitro also showed consistent patterns of variation in expression among breast(More)
Efavirenz (also known as DMP 266 or SUSTIVA) is a potent nonnucleoside inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and of HIV-1 replication in vitro and in vivo. Most patients on efavirenz-containing regimens have sustained antiviral responses; however, rebounds in plasma viral load have been observed in some(More)
Semliki Forest virus is an enveloped alphavirus that infects cells by a membrane fusion reaction triggered by the low pH present in endocytic vacuoles. Fusion is mediated by the E1 spike protein subunit. During fusion, several conformational changes occur in E1 and E2, the two transmembrane subunits of the spike protein. These changes include dissociation(More)
DNA amplifications in breast cancer are frequent on chromosome 11q, in which multiple driver oncogenes likely reside in addition to cyclin D1 (CCND1). One such candidate, the scaffolding adapter protein, GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2), functions in ErbB signaling and was recently shown to enhance mammary epithelial cell proliferation, and(More)
A research program targeted toward the identification of expanded-spectrum nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors which possess increased potency toward K103N-containing mutant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and which maintain pharmacokinetics consistent with once-a-day dosing has resulted in the identification of the(More)