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Current therapeutic windows for effective application of thrombolytic agents are within 3-6 h of stroke. Although treatment can improve outcome, it is unclear what happens to synaptic fine structure during this critical period in vivo. The relationship between microcirculation and dendritic spine structure was determined in mouse somatosensory neurons(More)
Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic components of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain. Spines accumulate rapidly during early postnatal development and undergo a substantial loss as animals mature into adulthood. In past decades, studies have revealed that the number and size of dendritic spines are regulated by a variety of gene products and(More)
We have evaluated the spatial relationship between clotted vasculature and the structural integrity of layer V cortical neurons in YFP (yellow fluorescent protein)-H transgenic mice 2 to 10 h after photothrombotic stroke. Fortuitously, ischemic zones could be finely mapped about dysmorphic YFP labeled axons and dendrites using histology since Texas-red(More)
Stroke induces rapid activation and expansion of microglia, but the main source of microgliosis is controversial. Here we investigated the formation of microgliosis and infiltration of circulating cells in a photothrombosis stroke model by taking advantage of parabiosis and two-photon microscopy. We found that a small population of blood-derived(More)
In vivo two-photon microscopy was used to image in real time dendrites and their spines in a mouse photothrombotic stroke model that reduced somatosensory cortex blood flow in discrete regions of cortical functional maps. This approach allowed us to define relationships between blood flow, cortical structure, and function on scales not previously achieved(More)
Stroke is considered as the second leading cause of death worldwide. The survivors of stroke experience different levels of impairment in brain function resulting in debilitating disabilities. Current therapies for stroke are primarily palliative and may be effective in only a small population of stroke patients. In this study, we explore the(More)
Microgliosis is an intense reaction of CNS microglia to pathogenic insults. One of the characteristic features of microgliosis is an increase in the number of activated microglia at the site of lesion. Ontogenically, microglia are considered to be of mesodermal lineage in the adult CNS, but the origin of the accumulated microglia in pathological conditions(More)
Transplantation of embryonic cortical tissue is considered as a promising therapy for brain injury. Grafted neurons can reestablish neuronal network and improve cortical function of the host brain. Microglia is a key player in regulating neuronal survival and plasticity, but its activation and dynamics in grafted cortical tissue remain unknown. Using(More)
Ischemia can cause rapid neuronal damage. Previous studies have suggested that synaptic structures and cortical functions can be rescued if therapeutic interventions are applied in time, but the structural basis for this resilience remains incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the restoration of synaptic structures and postischemic plasticity of(More)
Progesterone (PG) as a neuroprotective reagent has been used for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) in experimental animal models. However, its effect and mechanism on axonal dieback at the early stage of SCI remain unclear. Here, we investigate the dynamics of injured axons and the effect of PG on the axonal dieback, glial response, and behavioral(More)