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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
TLDR
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms. Expand
Differential Induction of the Toll-Like Receptor 4-MyD88-Dependent and -Independent Signaling Pathways by Endotoxins
TLDR
Neisseria meningitidis endotoxin was a potent agonist of both the MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling pathways of the TLR4 receptor complex of human macrophages and response was restored inTLR4-MD-2-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Expand
Cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance in Neisseria meningitidis.
TLDR
Data indicated that meningococci utilize multiple mechanisms including the action of the MtrC-MtrD- MtrE efflux pump and lipid A modification as well as the type IV pilin secretion system to modulate levels of CAMP resistance. Expand
A Melanin Pigment Purified from an Epidemic Strain of Burkholderia cepacia Attenuates Monocyte Respiratory Burst Activity by Scavenging Superoxide Anion
TLDR
It is concluded that melanin-producing B. cepacia may derive protection from the free-radical-scavenging properties of this pigment, and melanin inhibited•O2− detection when added at the triggering stage of the respiratory burst. Expand
Incidence of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae after introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: population-based assessment
TLDR
Macrolide resistance in invasive S pneumoniae disease in Atlanta, before and after the licensing of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for young children, fell to 2.9 per 100,000 by 2002, and striking reductions were seen in children younger than 2 years and in those 2-4 years, age-groups targeted to receive pneumococ CAL vaccine. Expand
Neisseria meningitidis Lipooligosaccharide Structure-Dependent Activation of the Macrophage CD14/Toll-Like Receptor 4 Pathway
TLDR
KDO2 linked to meningococcal lipid A was structurally required for maximal activation of the human macrophage TLR4 pathway and indicates an important role for KDO-lipid A in endotoxin biologic activity. Expand
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Burkholderia cepacia Is More Active than LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Stimulating Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha from Human Monocytes
TLDR
Results suggest that B. cepacia LPS might play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung disease in cystic fibrosis, and in some patients it might be responsible, at least in part, for the sepsis-like cEPacia syndrome. Expand
The role of vitamin D in regulating the iron-hepcidin-ferroportin axis in monocytes
TLDR
Investigation of the role of vitamin D in the regulation of hepcidin expression in vitro and in vivo reports that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonally active form ofitamin D, is associated with decreased hePCidin and increased ferroportin expressionIn lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated THP-1 cells, which may facilitate iron egress. Expand
Antimicrobial peptides and endotoxin inhibit cytokine and nitric oxide release but amplify respiratory burst response in human and murine macrophages
TLDR
Although AMP inhibited cytokine and nitric oxide induction by endotoxin in a TLR4‐dependent manner, AMP and endotoxin amplified ROS release in a RL4‐independent manner possibly by exerting a prolonged catalytic effect on the ROS generating enzymes such as the NADPH‐oxidase complex. Expand
Impact of vitamin D supplementation on markers of inflammation in adults with cystic fibrosis hospitalized for a pulmonary exacerbation
TLDR
It is concluded that a large bolus dose of vitamin D is associated with reductions in two inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, which supports the concept that vitamin D may help regulate inflammation in CF. Expand
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