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Low Examinee Effort in Low-Stakes Assessment: Problems and Potential Solutions
Student test-taking motivation in low-stakes assessment testing is examined in terms of both its relationship to test performance and the implications of low student effort for test validity. AExpand
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Development of the Multicultural Counseling Inventory: A self-report measure of multicultural competencies.
This article presents the Multicultural Counseling Inventory, a self-report instrument that measures multicultural counseling competencies in counselors.
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Response Time Effort: A New Measure of Examinee Motivation in Computer-Based Tests
When low-stakes assessments are administered, the degree to which examinees give their best effort is often unclear, complicating the validity and interpretation of the resulting test scores. ThisExpand
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The Development and Validation of a Scale Measuring Attitudes toward Statistics
This study describes the development and validation of a new instrument entitled Attitudes Toward Statistics (ATS) to be used in the measurement of attitude change in introductory statisticsExpand
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An Investigation of the Differential Effort Received by Items on a Low-Stakes Computer-Based Test
In low-stakes testing, the motivation levels of examinees are often a matter of concern to test givers because a lack of examinee effort represents a direct threat to the validity of the test data.Expand
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Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior From Rapid-Guessing Behavior
This study compared four methods for setting item response time thresholds to differentiate rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior. Expand
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An Application of Item Response Time: The Effort‐Moderated IRT Model
The validity of inferences based on achievement test scores is dependent on the amount of effort that examinees put forth while taking the test. With low-stakes tests, for which this problem isExpand
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The Therapeutic Reactance Scale: A Measure of Psychological Reactance
This article describes the development of the Therapeutic Reactance Scale, which was developed to measure psychological reactance as defined by Brehm (1966). The scale was factor-analyzed into verbalExpand
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Effort Analysis: Individual Score Validation of Achievement Test Data
Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student’s achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student’s test score accurately reflects what thatExpand
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Examinee Noneffort and the Validity of Program Assessment Results
Educational program assessment studies often use data from low-stakes tests to provide evidence of program quality. The validity of scores from such tests, however, is potentially threatened byExpand
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