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Reciprocal Rewards Stabilize Cooperation in the Mycorrhizal Symbiosis
It is concluded that, unlike many other mutualisms, the symbiont cannot be “enslaved,” and the mutualism is evolutionarily stable because control is bidirectional, and partners offering the best rate of exchange are rewarded.
Social evolution theory for microorganisms
A conceptual overview of the different mechanisms through which cooperative behaviours can be stabilized is provided, emphasizing the aspects most relevant to microorganisms, the novel problems that microorganisms pose and the new insights that can be gained from applying evolutionary theory to micro organisms.
Evolutionary Explanations for Cooperation
Cooperation and conflict in quorum-sensing bacterial populations
This work examines the social evolution of QS experimentally in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and shows that although QS can provide a benefit at the group level, exploitative individuals can avoid the cost of producing the QS signal or of performing the cooperative behaviour that is coordinated by QS, and can therefore spread.
Cooperation and competition in pathogenic bacteria
The results show that higher levels of cooperative siderophore production evolve in the higher relatedness treatments, but that more local competition selects for lower levels of siderophile production, and that there is a significant interaction between relatedness and the scale of competition.
Host sanctions and the legume–rhizobium mutualism
It is shown that soybeans penalize rhizobia that fail to fix N2 inside their root nodules, and non-invasive monitoring implicated decreased O2 supply as a possible mechanism for sanctions against cheating Rhizobia.
The Social Lives of Microbes
The aim here is to review social behaviors of microbes, emphasizing the unique opportunities they offer for testing existing evolutionary theory as well as highlighting the novel theoretical problems that they pose.
Cooperation and Competition Between Relatives
Competition between relatives can reduce, and even totally negate, the kin-selected benefits of altruism toward relatives, and has demonstrated the generality of the effect of competition between relatives.
Constraints in the Evolution of Sex Ratio Adjustment
This work uses meta-analysis to test the role of two constraints in the evolution of sex ratios in birds and wasps and shows that mechanisms of sex determination do not necessarily constrain the Evolution of sex ratio adjustment, and parental ability to predict their offsprings' environment influences the evolutionof sex ratio patterns across taxa.
Maternal Dominance, Maternal Condition, and Offspring Sex Ratio in Ungulate Mammals
Meta‐analysis was used to review published studies of the Trivers‐Willard hypothesis within ungulates and to assess the overall level of empirical support for the hypothesis.