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Social semantics: altruism, cooperation, mutualism, strong reciprocity and group selection
From an evolutionary perspective, social behaviours are those which have fitness consequences for both the individual that performs the behaviour, and another individual. Over the last 43 years, aExpand
Social evolution theory for microorganisms
Microorganisms communicate and cooperate to perform a wide range of multicellular behaviours, such as dispersal, nutrient acquisition, biofilm formation and quorum sensing. Microbiologists areExpand
Reciprocal Rewards Stabilize Cooperation in the Mycorrhizal Symbiosis
Plants and their associated fungi reward partners that offer the best resources to sustain mutualism in complex systems. Plants and their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbionts interact in complexExpand
Evolutionary Explanations for Cooperation
Natural selection favours genes that increase an organism's ability to survive and reproduce. This would appear to lead to a world dominated by selfish behaviour. However, cooperation can be found atExpand
Cooperation and conflict in quorum-sensing bacterial populations
It has been suggested that bacterial cells communicate by releasing and sensing small diffusible signal molecules in a process commonly known as quorum sensing (QS). It is generally assumed that QSExpand
Cooperation and competition in pathogenic bacteria
Explaining altruistic cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for evolutionary biology. One solution to this problem is if costly cooperative behaviours are directed towards relatives. ThisExpand
The Social Lives of Microbes
Our understanding of the social lives of microbes has been revolutionized over the past 20 years. It used to be assumed that bacteria and other microorganisms lived relatively independent unicellularExpand
The genetical theory of kin selection
Natural selection operates both directly, via the impact of a trait upon the individual’s own fitness, and indirectly, via the impact of the trait upon the fitness of the individual’s geneticallyExpand
Cooperation and Competition Between Relatives
Individuals are predicted to behave more altruistically and less competitively toward their relatives, because they share a relatively high proportion of their genes (e.g., one-half for siblings andExpand
Host sanctions and the legume–rhizobium mutualism
Explaining mutualistic cooperation between species remains one of the greatest problems for evolutionary biology. Why do symbionts provide costly services to a host, indirectly benefiting competitorsExpand