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Sexual maturity in growing dinosaurs does not fit reptilian growth models
- Andrew H Lee, S. Werning
- Environmental Science, GeographyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 15 January 2008
It is shown by counting lines of arrested growth and performing growth curve reconstructions that Tenontosaurus, Allosaurus, and Tyrannosaurus were reproductively mature by 8, 10, and 18 years, respectively, which suggests that these dinosaurs were born relatively precocial and experienced high adult mortality.
The oldest dinosaur? A Middle Triassic dinosauriform from Tanzania
- S. Nesbitt, P. Barrett, S. Werning, C. Sidor, A. Charig
- Environmental Science, GeographyBiology Letters
- 23 February 2013
Nyasasaurus possesses a unique combination of dinosaur character states and an elevated growth rate similar to that of definitive early dinosaurs, demonstrating that the initial dinosaur radiation occurred over a longer timescale than previously thought and that dinosaurs are better understood as part of a larger Middle Triassic archosauriform radiation.
The Ontogenetic Osteohistology of Tenontosaurus tilletti
- S. Werning
- Environmental Science, GeographyPloS one
- 28 March 2012
The bone histology of T. tilletti indicates a much slower growth trajectory than observed for other iguanodontians, suggesting that those taxa reached much larger sizes than Tenontosaurus in a shorter time.
Ontogeny in the tube-crested dinosaur Parasaurolophus (Hadrosauridae) and heterochrony in hadrosaurids
- A. Farke, Derek J. Chok, A. Herrero, Brandon Scolieri, S. Werning
- Environmental SciencePeerJ
- 22 October 2013
The skull and skeleton of a juvenile Parasaurolophus from the late Campanian-aged Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah, USA, represents the smallest and most complete specimen yet described for this taxon.
Evolution of Bone Histological Characters in Amniotes, and the Implications for the Evolution of Growth and Metabolism
- S. Werning
- Environmental Science, Geography
The histological database of archosaurs and their ancestors is expanded to include early archosauromorphs, pseudosuchians, and dinosauromorphs and suggests the possibility of more useful quantification of osteohistological indicators as proxies for growth and metabolic rates in extinct and extant vertebrates.
A hypothesis of differential secondary bone formation in dinosaurs
Chemistry supports the identification of gender-specific reproductive tissue in Tyrannosaurus rex
- M. Schweitzer, Wenxia Zheng, Lindsay E. Zanno, S. Werning, T. Sugiyama
- Environmental Science, BiologyScientific reports
- 15 March 2016
This work exploits the unique chemical and histological fingerprint of MB in birds to characterize, at the molecular level, MB in the non-avian theropod Tyrannosaurus rex, and shows that the retention of original molecular components in fossils allows deeper physiological and evolutionary questions to be addressed.
Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes)
- D. Ksepka, S. Werning, Michelle Sclafani, Zachary M. Boles
- Geography, Environmental ScienceJournal of anatomy
- 1 November 2015
New observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins are presented, based on histological sections from two extant taxa and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages, indicating that the modification of flipper boneMicrostructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins.
Bone histology and growth in Stenaulorhynchus stockleyi (Archosauromorpha: Rhynchosauria) from the Middle Triassic of the Ruhuhu Basin of Tanzania
Medullary bone is phylogenetically widespread and its skeletal distribution varies by taxon
- S. Werning
- BiologyJournal of Ornithology
- 19 February 2018
Because the presence of medullary bone confirms sex, maturity, and reproductive status, its detection in specimens of known collection date can improve the understanding of life history and reproductive timing in wild birds, even decades later.