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Tiotropium bromide step-up therapy for adults with uncontrolled asthma.
TLDR
When added to an inhaled glucocorticoid, tiotropium improved symptoms and lung function in patients with inadequately controlled asthma and its effects appeared to be equivalent to those with the addition of salmeterol.
Airway microbiota and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with suboptimally controlled asthma.
TLDR
The composition of Bronchial airway microbiota is associated with the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness among patients with suboptimally controlled asthma, and these findings support the need for further functional studies to examine the potential contribution of members of theAirway microbiota in asthma pathogenesis.
Asthma in the elderly: Current understanding and future research needs—a report of a National Institute on Aging (NIA) workshop
TLDR
The National Institute on Aging convened this workshop to identify what is known and what gaps in knowledge remain and suggest research directions needed to improve the understanding and care of asthma in the elderly.
Clinical characteristics of cold-induced systemic reactions in acquired cold urticaria syndromes: recommendations for prevention of this complication and a proposal for a diagnostic classification of
TLDR
All patients with ACU with active histories of cold urticaria are at risk to develop systemic reactions to cold and should therefore refrain from participating in aquatic activities, and high-risk patients should receive prophylactic medications that are effective in suppressing this disorder.
Cytokines in symptomatic asthma airways.
TLDR
In episodes of asthma, several cytokines, including TNF, GM-CSF, IL-1 beta, IL,2, and IL-6 are detectable in BALF, suggesting activation of alveolar macrophages and T cells.
Increased biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in activated human eosinophils.
TLDR
It is suggested that the generation and release of PAF could be a consequence of eosinophil chemotactic activation and may thus function in inflammatory and allergic reactions in which eOSinophils participate.
TLR4-mediated induction of TLR2 signaling is critical in the pathogenesis and resolution of otitis media
TLDR
Results demonstrate that both TLR2 and TLR4 signalling are critical to the regulation of infection in non-typeable H. influenzae-induced otitis media.
Innate Signaling in Otitis Media: Pathogenesis and Recovery
TLDR
It is concluded that an intact innate immune signaling system is critical to recovery from bacterial OM, and deletion of several key innate immune genes results in persistent OM in mice, coupled with an inability to clear bacterial infection from the middle ear.
Mouse models of induced otitis media
TLDR
The results indicate that induced otitis media in the normal mouse is in most respects comparable to that observed in other animal models and in humans, and suggest that the considerable genetic resources of this species can be harnessed to increase the understanding of this disease.
Association of platelet-activating factor with primary acquired cold urticaria.
TLDR
A positive correlation between PAF-LL release and cold urticaria is suggested, although the exact relation between PAf-LL and cutaneous lesions of primary acquired cold Urticaria has not yet been established.
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