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A Revision of the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale
This article reports the results of 2 studies designed to test and revise the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale (J. G. Ponterotto et al., 1996). Collective results support the 2-factorExpand
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Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS)—Brief Version
This article describes the development and validation of a short version of the Index of Race-Related Stress—Brief Version (IRRS-B). The IRRS-B is a 22-item, multidimensional measure of the race-re...
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Self-concealment, social self-efficacy, acculturative stress, and depression in African, Asian, and Latin American international college students.
The primary purpose of this exploratory investigation was to examine self-concealment behaviors and social self-efficacy skills as potential mediators in the relationship between acculturative stressExpand
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Racial Discrimination, Coping, Life Satisfaction, and Self‐Esteem Among African Americans
This article reports the results of a study that examined the coping strategies used by African Americans in managing the stressful effects of racism. A total of 213 participants (women, n = 137;Expand
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Development and Initial Validation of the Africultural Coping Systems Inventory
This article describes the development and validation of the Africultural Coping Systems Inventory (ACSI). The ACSI is a 30-item measure of the culture-specific coping strategies used by AfricanExpand
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Development and Validation of the Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS).
This article describes the development and validation of a measure of the stress experienced by African Americans as a result of their daily encounters with racism and discrimination. The Index ofExpand
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Cultural humility: measuring openness to culturally diverse clients.
Building on recent theory stressing multicultural orientation, as well as the development of virtues and dispositions associated with multicultural values, we introduce the construct of culturalExpand
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Assessing the Stressful Effects of Racism: A Review of Instrumentation
This article reviewed six instruments developed to assess the psychological processes associated with the experience of racism among African Americans. Although the instruments reviewed in thisExpand
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Examining the Cultural Adjustment Experiences of African International College Students: A Qualitative Analysis.
The authors examined the cultural adjustment experiences of 12 Kenyan, Nigerian, and Ghanaian international college students through semistructured interviews. Using consensual qualitative researchExpand
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Effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life.
This study examined the effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life (QOL). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Index of Race RelatedExpand
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