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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
A set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes are presented. Expand
Starvation and ULK1-dependent cycling of mammalian Atg9 between the TGN and endosomes
The mammalian homologue of Atg9p, a multi-spanning transmembrane protein essential in yeast for autophagy, is studied to gain a better understanding of the function of this ubiquitious protein. Expand
Mammalian Atg18 (WIPI2) localizes to omegasome-anchored phagophores and positively regulates LC3 lipidation
A role for WIPI2 in the progression of omegasomes into autophagosomes is proposed, which is thought to act as platforms forAutophagosome formation. Expand
The autophagosome: origins unknown, biogenesis complex
It is proposed that the isolation membrane forms from the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (MAM) and the role of ATG proteins and the vesicular trafficking machinery in autophagosome formation is proposed. Expand
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms. Expand
WIPI2 Links LC3 Conjugation with PI3P, Autophagosome Formation, and Pathogen Clearance by Recruiting Atg12–5-16L1
Mutation experiments and ectopic localization of WIPI2b to plasma membrane show that WIPi2b is a PtdIns(3)P effector upstream of Atg16L1 and is required for LC3 conjugation and starvation-induced autophagy through recruitment of the Atg12–5- 16L1 complex. Expand
Kinase-Inactivated ULK Proteins Inhibit Autophagy via Their Conserved C-Terminal Domains Using an Atg13-Independent Mechanism
It is demonstrated that the dominant-negative activity of kinase-dead mutants requires a 7-residue motif within the CTD, which leads to a model in which the functions of ULK1 and ULK2 are controlled by autophosphorylation and conformational changes involving exposure of theCTD. Expand
Dynamic and transient interactions of Atg9 with autophagosomes, but not membrane integration, are required for autophagy
It is proposed that mAtg9 function is required to initiate autophagosome formation and increase the number of autophagophagosomes. Expand
TBC1D14 regulates autophagosome formation via Rab11- and ULK1-positive recycling endosomes
The noncatalytic RabGAP protein TBC1D14 regulates the Rab11- and ULK1-positive recycling endosomes required for autophagosome formation upon starvation
Molecular definitions of autophagy and related processes
A panel of leading experts in the field attempts here to define several autophagy‐related terms based on specific biochemical features to formulate recommendations that facilitate the dissemination of knowledge within and outside the field of autophagic research. Expand