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Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome
TLDR
This work identifies ocean microbial core functionality and reveals that >73% of its abundance is shared with the human gut microbiome despite the physicochemical differences between these two ecosystems.
eggNOG 4.5: a hierarchical orthology framework with improved functional annotations for eukaryotic, prokaryotic and viral sequences
TLDR
The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group, and eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees.
An integrated catalog of reference genes in the human gut microbiome
TLDR
The integrated gene catalog (IGC) is established comprising 9,879,896 genes, which includes close-to-complete sets of genes for most gut microbes, which are also of considerably higher quality than in previous catalogs.
Potential of fecal microbiota for early-stage detection of colorectal cancer
TLDR
CRC‐associated changes in the fecal microbiome at least partially reflected microbial community composition at the tumor itself, indicating that observed gene pool differences may reveal tumor‐related host–microbe interactions.
Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers
TLDR
The authors' classifications based on variation in the gut microbiome identify subsets of individuals in the general white adult population who may be at increased risk of progressing to adiposity-associated co-morbidities.
Disentangling type 2 diabetes and metformin treatment signatures in the human gut microbiota
TLDR
A unified signature of gut microbiome shifts in T2D with a depletion of butyrate-producing taxa is reported, highlighting the need to disentangle gut microbiota signatures of specific human diseases from those of medication.
Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean
TLDR
Diversity emerged at all taxonomic levels, both within the groups comprising the ~11,200 cataloged morphospecies of eukaryotic plankton and among twice as many other deep-branching lineages of unappreciated importance in plankton ecology studies.
Threatened Corals Provide Underexplored Microbial Habitats
TLDR
This work investigated the potential of corals to provide highly specialized habitats for bacterial taxa including those that are rarely detected or absent in surrounding reef waters, and revealed that corals harbor many bacterialTaxa previously not known.
Bacterial diversity and White Plague Disease-associated community changes in the Caribbean coral Montastraea faveolata
TLDR
An increase in diversity as well as a significant shift in community structure is determined in Montastraea faveolata colonies displaying phenotypic signs of White Plague Disease type II (WPD-II), and the possibility that a disease of yet to be determined etiology may have affected M. favelata colonies and resulted in an increase in opportunistic pathogens is discussed.
Identification and assembly of genomes and genetic elements in complex metagenomic samples without using reference genomes
TLDR
This work presents a method, based on binning co-abundant genes across a series of metagenomic samples, that enables comprehensive discovery of new microbial organisms, viruses and co-inherited genetic entities and aids assembly of microbial genomes without the need for reference sequences.
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