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Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants
TLDR
It is shown that there are three monophyletic groups of extant vascular plants: (1) lycophytes, (2) seed plants and (3) a clade including equisetophytes (horsetails, psilotophytes) and all eusporangiate and leptosporangiates ferns.
The history of early bee diversification based on five genes plus morphology
TLDR
This work reconstructed a robust phylogeny of bees at the family and subfamily levels using a data set of five genes (4,299 nucleotide sites) plus morphology (109 characters) and suggested an African origin for bees, because the earliest branches of the tree include predominantly African lineages.
Single-copy nuclear genes recover cretaceous-age divergences in bees.
TLDR
The results indicate that each of the four subfamilies arose well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and suggest that the early radiation of halictid bees involved substantial African-South American interchange roughly coincident with the separation of these two continents in the late Cret Jurassic.
Recent and simultaneous origins of eusociality in halictid bees
TLDR
Results from relaxed molecular clock dating techniques indicate that the three independent origins of eusociality in halictid bees occurred within a narrow time frame between approximately 20 and 22 Myr ago, suggesting that climate may have had an important role in the evolution and maintenance of eusociality in these bees.
Pollen‐host specificity and evolutionary patterns of host switching in a clade of specialist bees (Apoidea: Diadasia)
TLDR
Diadasia species are more likely to use host-plant families that are used by other Diadasia and Emphorine bees; however, there was no evidence of residual adaptation to ancestral hosts, and diet breadth appears to be a labile trait.
Tests of pre- and postpollination barriers to hybridization between sympatric species of Ipomopsis (Polemoniaceae).
TLDR
It is hypothesize that hybrids are scarce in nature, in part, because of asymmetric barriers to reproduction: little pollen transfer in one direction and poor pollen performance in the other.
Revisiting the Great American Biotic Interchange through analyses of amphitropical bees
TLDR
This study is the first to show a Miocene connection for an amphitropically-distributed insect group, and suggests that the biotic connection between continents is more complicated than previously thought and may have initiated long before the late Pliocene.
Reproductive biology and pollination ecology of the rare Yellowstone Park endemic Abronia ammophila (Nyctaginaceae)
TLDR
The breeding system, reproductive output and pollination ecology of Abronia ammophila Greene, a rare and highly restricted endemic of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, suggest that A. ammophila exhibits a mixed-mating system that may have evolved as a consequence of ecological pressures such as scarcity of mates or pollinators.
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