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The volcanic explosivity index (VEI) an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism
Knowledge of the frequencies of highly explosive, moderately explosive, and nonexplosive eruptions would be useful in a variety of volcano studies. Historical records are generally incomplete,
Atmospheric and environmental effects of the 1783-1784 Laki eruption: A review and reassessment
[1] The 1783–1784 Laki flood lava eruption in Iceland emitted ∼122 megatons (Mt) SO2 into the atmosphere and maintained a sulfuric aerosol veil that hung over the Northern Hemisphere for >5 months.
Sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine degassing and atmospheric loading by the 1783–1784 AD Laki (Skaftár Fires) eruption in Iceland
Abstract The 1783–1784 Laki tholeiitic basalt fissure eruption in Iceland was one of the greatest atmospheric pollution events of the past 250 years, with widespread effects in the northern
The Laki (Skaftár Fires) and Grímsvötn eruptions in 1783–1785
The Laki (Skaftár Fires) fissure eruption in southern Iceland lasted for eight months during 1783 to 1784, and produced one of the largest basaltic lava flows in historic times (14.7±1.0 km3). In
The Importance of Pahoehoe
▪ Abstract Pahoehoe lava flows are common in every basaltic province, and their submarine variants, pillow lavas and sheet flows, cover the bulk of the Earth. Pahoehoe flows are emplaced by
The Roza Member, Columbia River Basalt Group: A gigantic pahoehoe lava flow field formed by endogenous processes?
We present studies on the physical volcanology of the ∼15 Ma Roza Member of the Wanapum Formation in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The Roza Member represents a compound pahoehoe flood basalt lava
A comparison of pyroclastic flow and debris avalanche mobility
Many pyroclastic flows have runout distances longer than expected from basic frictional arguments. In these cases the ratio of the height descended H and the runout L are as small as ∼0.2, a feature
Satellite observations and interpretation of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption plumes
We demonstrate the use of hourly Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) and NOAA polar-orbiting advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite images of the June 1991 Mount Pinatubo
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