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Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers.
TLDR
Primer3 is a computer program that suggests PCR primers for a variety of applications, for example to create STSs (sequence tagged sites) for radiation hybrid mapping (5), or to amplify sequences for single nucleotide polymorphism discovery (6). Expand
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The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes
The male-specific region of the Y chromosome, the MSY, differentiates the sexes and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length. Here, we report that the MSY is a mosaic of heterochromatic sequences andExpand
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Large-scale identification, mapping, and genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genome.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent type of variation in the human genome, and they provide powerful tools for a variety of medical genetic studies. In a large-scale surveyExpand
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Polymorphism for a 1.6-Mb deletion of the human Y chromosome persists through balance between recurrent mutation and haploid selection
Many human Y-chromosomal deletions are thought to severely impair reproductive fitness, which precludes their transmission to the next generation and thus ensures their rarity in the population. HereExpand
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Diverse spermatogenic defects in humans caused by Y chromosome deletions encompassing a novel RNA-binding protein gene
We have detected deletions of portions of the Y chromosome long arm in 12 of 89 men with azoospermia (no spermatozoa in their semen). No Y deletions were detected in their male relatives or in 90Expand
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Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y chromosomes
Eight palindromes comprise one-quarter of the euchromatic DNA of the male-specific region of the human Y chromosome, the MSY. They contain many testis-specific genes and typically exhibit 99.97%Expand
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Recombination between palindromes P5 and P1 on the human Y chromosome causes massive deletions and spermatogenic failure.
It is widely believed that at least three nonoverlapping regions of the human Y chromosome-AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc ("azoospermia factors" a, b, and c)-are essential for normal spermatogenesis. TheseExpand
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Diverse spermatogenic defects in humans caused by Y chromosome deletions encompassing a novel RNA–binding protein gene
We have detected deletions of portions of the Y chromosome long arm in 12 of 89 men with azoospermia (no sperm in semen). No Y deletions were detected in their male relatives or in 90 other fertileExpand
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Mammalian Y chromosomes retain widely expressed dosage-sensitive regulators
The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes, but millions of years ago genetic decay ravaged the Y chromosome, and only three per cent of its ancestral genes survived. WeExpand
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A Gene Map of the Human Genome
The human genome is thought to harbor 50,000 to 100,000 genes, of which about half have been sampled to date in the form of expressed sequence tags. An international consortium was organized toExpand
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