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Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods
This chapter discusses Hierarchical Linear Models in Applications, Applications in Organizational Research, and Applications in the Study of Individual Change Applications in Meta-Analysis and Other Cases Where Level-1 Variances are Known.
Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy.
Multilevel analyses showed that a measure of collective efficacy yields a high between-neighborhood reliability and is negatively associated with variations in violence, when individual-level characteristics, measurement error, and prior violence are controlled.
Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods1
This article assesses the sources and consequences of public disorder. Based on the videotaping and systematic rating of more than 23,000 street segments in Chicago, highly reliable scales of social…
Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and the spatial dynamics of urban violence
Highlighting resource inequality, social processes, and spatial interdependence, this study combines structural characteristics from the 1990 census with a survey of 8,872 Chicago residents in 1995…
Application of Hierarchical Linear Models to Assessing Change
Developments over the past 10 years in the statistical theory of hierarchical linear models (HLMs) now enable an integrated approach for (a) studying the structure of individual growth and estimating…
Seeing Disorder: Neighborhood Stigma and the Social Construction of “Broken Windows”
This article reveals the grounds on which individuals form perceptions of disorder. Integrating ideas about implicit bias and statistical discrimination with a theoretical framework on neighborhood…
Statistical analysis and optimal design for cluster randomized trials
- S. Raudenbush
- 1 June 1997
In many intervention studies, therapy outcome evaluations, and educational field trials, random treatment assignment of clusters rather than persons is desirable for political feasibility, logistics,…
Relationship between Urban Sprawl and Physical Activity, Obesity, and Morbidity
- R. Ewing, T. Schmid, R. Killingsworth, A. Zlot, S. Raudenbush
- MedicineAmerican journal of health promotion : AJHP
- 1 September 2003
This ecologic study reveals that urban form could be significantly associated with some forms of physical activity and some health outcomes.
Social anatomy of racial and ethnic disparities in violence.
The results imply that generic interventions to improve neighborhood conditions and support families may reduce racial gaps in violence.
Statistical power and optimal design for multisite randomized trials.
A standardized hierarchical linear model is proposed and rules of thumb similar to those proposed by J. Cohen (1988) for small, medium, and large effect sizes and for small and large treatment-by-site variance are used.