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Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine alone and in combination with ethanol on the immune system in humans.
The immune function shows a trend toward baseline levels at 24 h after MDMA kinetics, suggesting a transient defect in immunological homeostasis, if temporarily repeated, might alter the immune response with a risk for the general health status.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Amfetamine and Related Substances
- R. Torre, M. Farré, M. Navarro, R. Pacifici, P. Zuccaro, S. Pichini
- BiologyClinical pharmacokinetics
Because of the physicochemical properties of amfetamine-type stimulants, this group of drugs is one of the most suitable for drug testing in non-conventional matrices and has recently gained much attention because of its possible applications in clinical and forensic toxicology.
Usefulness of saliva for measurement of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its metabolites: correlation with plasma drug concentrations and effect of salivary pH.
Measurement of MDMA in saliva is a valuable alternative to determination of plasma drug concentrations in both clinical and toxicologic studies and is also facilitated by noninvasive and rapid collection of salivary specimens.
Contribution of Cytochrome P450 2D6 to 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Disposition in Humans
The contribution of CYP2D6 to MDMA metabolism in humans is not >30%, therefore other CYP isoenzymes may contribute to O-demethylenation of MDMA, once the enzyme is inhibited.
Pharmacokinetics and cytokine production in heroin and morphine-treated mice.
Quantification of the plant-derived hallucinogen Salvinorin A in conventional and non-conventional biological fluids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after Salvia divinorum smoking.
- S. Pichini, S. Abanades, P. Zuccaro
- ChemistryRapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM
- 30 June 2005
A gas chromatography method with mass spectrometric detection is described for the determination of Salvinorin A, the main active ingredient of the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum, and was applied to the analysis of urine, saliva and sweat from two consumers after smoking 75 mg plant leaves to verify the presence of the active ingredient.
Assessment of prenatal exposure to ethanol by meconium analysis: results of an Italian multicenter study.
The results indicate considerable variability in the prevalence of fetal exposure to ethanol in different Italian cities, as determined by the objective measurement of biomarkers in meconium, and indicate that gestational ethanol exposure is widespread, at least in parts of Europe.
Cord serum cotinine as a biomarker of fetal exposure to cigarette smoke at the end of pregnancy.
- S. Pichini, X. Basagaña, J. Sunyer
- Medicine, PsychologyEnvironmental health perspectives
- 1 November 2000
Cotinine in cord serum cotinine appeared to be the most adequate biomarker of fetal exposure to smoking at the end of pregnancy, distinguishing not only active smoking from passive smoking, but also exposure to ETS from nonexposure.
E-cigarette awareness, use, and harm perceptions in Italy: a national representative survey.
- S. Gallus, A. Lugo, C. la Vecchia
- MedicineNicotine & tobacco research : official journal of…
- 1 December 2014
Three out of 4 e-cigarette users reported to have favorably modified their smoking habit; however, 90% of users did not quit smoking as a consequence of starting vaping e-cigarettes.
Cell-mediated immune response in MDMA users after repeated dose administration: studies in controlled versus noncontrolled settings.
- R. Pacifici, P. Zuccaro, R. de la Torre
- Medicine, BiologyAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Accumulation of MDMA in the body of a poor metabolizer induced higher immunomodulatory effects with statistically significant differences in NK cell function compared with extensive metabolizers, which may result in impairment of general health and subsequent increased susceptibility to infection and immune-related disorders.