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Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Three Distinct N-Methyltransferases Involved in the Caffeine Biosynthetic Pathway in Coffee Plants1
TLDR
The results suggest that the presently identified threeN-methyltransferases participate in caffeine biosynthesis in coffee plants and substantiate the proposed caffeine biosynthetic pathway.
Callus and cell suspension culture of bamboo plant, Phyllostachys nigra
TLDR
Endogenous free amino acids analyses indicated that glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and alanine were the major amino acids in callus tissues whereas asparagine and tyrosine were abundant in the regenerated bamboo shoots.
Biosynthesis of theanine (γ-ethylamino-l-glutamic acid) in seedlings of Camellia sinensis
TLDR
Theanine can be synthesised from glutamic acid and ethylamine derived from alanine in all parts of tea seedlings, however, supplied NH 3 exogenously to intact seedlings was converted to theanine mainly in roots.
Targeting phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt beyond rapalogs
TLDR
Novel drugs blocking this pathway such as PI3K inhibitors, Akt inhibitors and PDK-1 inhibitors are currently only available for investigational use, but have shown promise as cancer therapies in both preclinical and early phase clinical studies.
Application of RNAi to confirm theobromine as the major intermediate for caffeine biosynthesis in coffee plants with potential for construction of decaffeinated varieties
TLDR
The results suggest that the Ca MXMT1-RNAi sequence affected expression of not only CaMXMT1 itself, but also CaXMT1and CaDXMT1, and that, since the reduction in theobromine content was proportional to that for caffeine, it is involved in the major synthetic pathway in coffee plants.
Interaction between methyl CpG-binding protein and ran GTPase during cell division in tobacco cultured cells.
TLDR
The results suggest that AtMBD5 becomes localized to the vicinity of chromosomes with the aid of AtRAN3 during cell division, and may play an important role not only in maintenance of chromatin structures by binding to 5-methylcytosine, but also in progress through mitosis by detaching from m(5)C.
Identification of a novel factor, vanillyl benzyl ether, which inhibits somatic embryogenesis of Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis Gordon).
TLDR
Results suggest that VBE is a novel negative regulator of somatic embryogenesis of Japanese larch, and quantification of VBE by HPLC demonstrated that V BE accumulates at high concentrations in HCM.
In vitro node culture of seedlings in bamboo plant, Phyllostachys meyeri McClure
TLDR
Phyllostachys meyeri cultivated in the Fuji Bamboo Garden, Japan showed monocarpic mass flowering from 2004 through 2005 and in vitro germination found that sterilized water supplemented with 0.1% Plant Preservative Mixture TM was effective for their growth with an efficient germination rate.
Identification of a factor that complementarily inhibits somatic embryogenesis with vanillyl benzyl ether in Japanese larch
TLDR
4-[(phenylmethoxy)methyl]phenol was identified as an inhibitory factor of larch somatic embryogenesis by physicochemical analyses of the fraction and showed that a fraction had strong inhibitory activity with VBE, but weak activity without it.
Producing decaffeinated coffee plants
TLDR
The construction of transgenic coffee plants are described in which expression of the gene encoding theobromine synthase (CaMXMT1) is repressed by RNA interference (RNAi), indicating that it should be feasible to produce coffee beans that are intrinsically deficient in caffeine.
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