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Molecular switch for signal transduction: structural differences between active and inactive forms of protooncogenic ras proteins.
TLDR
A comparison of eight three-dimensional structures of ras proteins in four different crystal lattices reveals that the "on" and "off" states of the switch are distinguished by conformational differences that span a length of more than 40 A, and are induced by the gamma-phosphate.
Formation of 8-hydroxyguanine moiety in cellular DNA by agents producing oxygen radicals and evidence for its repair.
TLDR
The results indicate that 8-OH-dG is formed in vivo in cellular DNA on treatment with various oxygen radical-producing agents and that it is repairable and that its content is increase in Salmonella typhimurium cells with hydrogen peroxide.
Hydroxylation of deoxyguanosine at the C-8 position by ascorbic acid and other reducing agents.
TLDR
The C-8 position of deoxyguanosine (dGuo) was hydroxylated by ascorbic acid in the presence of oxygen (O2) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer in high yield with remarkably enhanced addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
Misreading of DNA templates containing 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine at the modified base and at adjacent residues
TLDR
The syn-thetic oligodeoxynucleotides, with or without an 8-OH-dG residue in a specified position, were chemically synthesized and used as templates for DNA synthesis under the conditions of the dideoxy chain termination sequencing method.
Modified Nucleosides and Codon Recognition
This chapter focuses on the mechanisms by which the post-transcriptional modifications regulate the codon recognition of tRNAs, primarily from the viewpoint of conformational characteristics of
8-oxoguanine (8-hydroxyguanine) DNA glycosylase and its substrate specificity.
TLDR
8-oxodG DNA is the primary physiological substrate for a constituent glycosylase found in bacteria and mammalian cells, and it is proposed that the existence of a bacterial gene coding for FPG protein is proposed.
Molecular mechanism of codon recognition by tRNA species with modified uridine in the first position of the anticodon.
TLDR
The biological significance of modifications of uridine to xm5s2U/xo5U is in the regulation of the conformational rigidity/flexibility in the first position of the anticodon so as to guarantee the correct and efficient translation of codons in protein biosynthesis.
Codon and amino-acid specificities of a transfer RNA are both converted by a single post-transcriptional modification
TLDR
Both the codon and amino-acid specificity of this tRNA are converted by a single post-transcriptional modification of the first position of the anticodon during tRNA maturation.
Regional polysterism in the GTP-bound form of the human c-Ha-Ras protein.
TLDR
It was shown that the Ras(1-171) protein bound with GTP or GTPgammaS exhibits the same type of broadening, and it is a characteristic feature of the GTP-bound form of Ras that the L1, L2, and L4 loop regions, but not other regions, are in a rather slow interconversion between two or more stable conformers.
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