Large effects from small exposures. III. Endocrine mechanisms mediating effects of bisphenol A at levels of human exposure.
Concern with human exposure to BPA derives from identification of molecular mechanisms mediating effects in human and animal tissues at very low doses, in vivo effects in experimental animals caused by low doses within the range of human exposure, and widespread human Exposure to levels of BPA that cause adverse effects in animals.
Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol.
- S. Nagel, F. V. vom Saal, K. Thayer, M. G. Dhar, M. Boechler, W. Welshons
- Biology, MedicineEnvironmental Health Perspectives
- 1 January 1997
It is shown for the first time that fetal exposure to environmentally relevant parts-per-billion doses of bisphenol A, in the range currently being consumed by people, can alter the adult reproductive system in mice.
Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses.
- F. V. vom Saal, B. Timms, W. Welshons
- Medicine, BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 4 March 1997
It is suggested that a small increase in estrogen may modulate the action of androgen in regulating prostate differentiation, resulting in a permanent increase in prostatic androgen receptors and prostate size.
A Physiologically Based Approach To the Study of Bisphenol a and Other Estrogenic Chemicals On the Size of Reproductive Organs, Daily Sperm Production, and Behavior
Two chemicals previously shown to have estrogenic activity, bisphenol A and octylphenol, were examined for their effects on accessory reproductive organs and daily sperm production in male offspring of mice fed these chemicals during pregnancy and it was found that the 2 ng/g dose permanently increased the size of the preputial glands, but reduced thesize of the epididymides.
Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species.
The estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) and obesity
The Effective Free Fraction of Estradiol and Xenoestrogens in Human Serum Measured by Whole Cell Uptake Assays: Physiology of Delivery Modifies Estrogenic Activity
- S. Nagel, F. V. vom Saal, W. Welshons
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the Society for Experimental…
- 1 March 1998
The relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay was developed to determine the effect of serum on the access of nonradioactive xenoestrogens to estrogen receptors within intact MCF-7 cells and found that the estrogenic activity of these phytoestrogens would be underestimated in serum-free assays.
Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and…
Development of an ER action indicator mouse for the study of estrogens, selective ER modulators (SERMs), and Xenobiotics.
Evaluation of ER activity in female ERIN mice demonstrated estrogen-inducible expression of the reporter gene in the uterus, pituitary, and hypothalamus; established targets of estrogen action; and observed that on this specific promoter the pituitsary gland was 25-fold more sensitive than the uterus to the estrogen diethylstilbestrol, implying the existence of cell-specific factors that influence ligand sensitivity.
Comparative analyses of mechanistic differences among antiestrogens.
Results indicate that there are clear mechanistic distinctions among each of the antiestrogens studied, however, GW7604 and ICI 182,780 differ more significantly from tamoxifen than idoxifenes and raloxifene.