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Cytokine regulation of host defense against parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes: lessons from studies with rodent models.
Studies with rodents infected with Trichinella spiralis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Nippostronglyus brasiliensis, and Trichuris muris have provided considerable information about immune mechanismsExpand
Interleukin‐4‐ and interleukin‐13‐mediated host protection against intestinal nematode parasites
TLDR
It is argued that a limited ability of the host immune system to distinguish among different nematode parasites has led to the evolution of a stereotyped Th2 response that activates a set of effector mechanisms that protects against most intestinal nematodes parasites. Expand
IL-13, IL-4Ralpha, and Stat6 are required for the expulsion of the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that Stat6 signaling is not required for IL-4 enhancement of IgG1 production and actually inhibits IL- 4-induction of mucosal mastocytosis, and IL-13 may be more important thanIL-4 as an inducer of the Stat6 signaled signaling that leads to worm expulsion. Expand
Pathways of anaphylaxis in the mouse.
TLDR
Antigen-induced anaphylaxis in the mouse proceeds primarily through the IgG, FcgammaRIII, macrophage, and PAF pathway, even in an experimental model that is characterized by strong mast cell and IgE responses. Expand
Molecular mechanisms of anaphylaxis: lessons from studies with murine models.
TLDR
Comparisons in the murine and human immune systems suggest that the IgG pathway might mediate disease in persons repeatedly exposed to large quantities of antigen, and both local and systemic anaphylaxis induced by ingested antigens might be blocked by IgA and IgG antibodies. Expand
Anti-cytokine antibodies as carrier proteins. Prolongation of in vivo effects of exogenous cytokines by injection of cytokine-anti-cytokine antibody complexes.
TLDR
Injection of mice with mixtures of IL-4 and either of two neutralizing anti-IL-4 mAb, at a cytokine/anti-cytokine mAb molar ratio of approximately 2:1, enhances and prolongs in vivo IL- 4 activity, as measured by induction of increased spleen cell Ia expression. Expand
Effects of IL-12 on in vivo cytokine gene expression and Ig isotype selection.
TLDR
IL-12 may limit its own effects by inducing the production of a cytokine (IL-10) that down-regulates both IL-12 production and IL-13-induced IFN-gamma production, and the in vivo effects of IL- 12 are, to a large extent, IFN -gamma-dependent. Expand
Effects of interleukin 12 on immune responses and host protection in mice infected with intestinal nematode parasites
TLDR
Investigation of the effects of IL-12 on cytokine gene expression, immunoglobulin responses, and the course of infection in mice inoculated with the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis provides evidence that Th2- associated responses protect against, and/or Th1-associated responses exacerbate, nematodes infections. Expand
Dendritic cells can present antigen in vivo in a tolerogenic or immunogenic fashion.
TLDR
Observations indicate that DCs can present Ag in either a tolerogenic or stimulatory manner and suggest that inflammatory stimuli can convert an otherwise tolerogenic signal to a stimulatory signal. Expand
Dependence of IL-4, IL-13, and Nematode-Induced Alterations in Murine Small Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility on Stat6 and Enteric Nerves1
TLDR
It is demonstrated that both IL-4 and IL-13 promote intestinal smooth muscle contractility, but by different mechanisms, and differences in these effects correlate with differences in the relative importance of these cytokines in the expulsion of enteric nematode parasites. Expand
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