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The impoverished gut—a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease
The growing evidence for this triple burden of diarrhoea and malnutrition is reviewed and potential mechanisms and interventions that must be understood and applied to prevent the loss of human potential and unaffordable societal costs caused by these vicious cycles of poverty are reviewed. Expand
Malnutrition as an enteric infectious disease with long-term effects on child development.
The clinical data presented here derive largely from long-term cohort studies that are supported by controlled animal studies, and the mechanisms by which enteric infections lead to undernutrition and by which malnutrition worsens intestinal infections are reviewed. Expand
A longitudinal study of Giardia lamblia infection in north‐east Brazilian children
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the epidemiology of Giardia lamblia infection, investigate factors which might be associated with clinical manifestations and recurrence, and examine the role of copathogens inExpand
Longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium infection in children in northeastern Brazil.
The applicability of the current World Health Organization diarrheaheal definitions to Cryptosporidium-associated diarrheal episodes may need to be reconsidered. Expand
Early childhood diarrhoea and helminthiases associate with long-term linear growth faltering.
Early childhood diarrhoea and helminthiases independently associate with substantial linear growth shortfalls that continue beyond age 6 years, and targeted interventions for their control may have profound and lasting growth benefits for children in similar settings. Expand
Magnitude and impact of diarrheal diseases.
The high costs of diseases of poverty, increasing diarrhea morbidity (despite decreasing mortality), and new emerging evidence for long-term consequences of early childhood diarrhea on growth and on physical and cognitive development are reviewed. Expand
Association of early childhood diarrhea and cryptosporidiosis with impaired physical fitness and cognitive function four-seven years later in a poor urban community in northeast Brazil.
These findings document for the first time a potentially substantial impact of early childhood diarrhea and cryptosporidial infections on subsequent functional status and have major implications for calculations of global disability adjusted life years and for the importance and potential cost effectiveness of targeted interventions for early Childhood diarrhea. Expand
Early childhood growth failure and the developmental origins of adult disease: do enteric infections and malnutrition increase risk for the metabolic syndrome?
Emerging evidence links early childhood diarrhea and/or growth failure with an increased occurrence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in later life, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance. Expand
Prolonged episodes of acute diarrhea reduce growth and increase risk of persistent diarrhea in children.
ProD accounts for significant morbidity and identifies children at risk of a vicious cycle of diarrhea and malnutrition in resource-limited settings and assess its role in PD pathogenesis. Expand
Early childhood diarrhea is associated with diminished cognitive function 4 to 7 years later in children in a northeast Brazilian shantytown.
It is confirmed and substantially extends previous pilot studies, showing that long-term cognitive deficits are associated with early childhood diarrhea, and has important implications for the importance of interventions that may reduce early childhood diarrheal illnesses or their consequences. Expand