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Distinct dendritic cell populations sequentially present antigen to CD4 T cells and stimulate different aspects of cell-mediated immunity.
Peptide:MHC II complexes derived from a fluorescent antigen were detected in vivo to identify the cells that present subcutaneously injected antigen to CD4 T cells. Skin-derived dendritic cells (DCs)Expand
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Naive CD4(+) T cell frequency varies for different epitopes and predicts repertoire diversity and response magnitude.
Cell-mediated immunity stems from the proliferation of naive T lymphocytes expressing T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) specific for foreign peptides bound to host major histocompatibility complexExpand
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In vivo activation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells.
Physical detection of antigen-specific CD4 T cells has revealed features of the in vivo immune response that were not appreciated from in vitro studies. In vivo, antigen is initially presented toExpand
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Expression of T-bet by CD4 T Cells Is Essential for Resistance to Salmonella Infection1
Despite the recognized role of the T-bet transcription factor in the differentiation of Th1 cells, T-bet-deficient mice can develop small numbers of IFN-γ-producing CD4 T cells. Although these areExpand
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CCR6-mediated dendritic cell activation of pathogen-specific T cells in Peyer's patches.
T cell activation by dendritic cells (DCs) is critical to the initiation of adaptive immune responses and protection against pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that a specialized DC subset in Peyer'sExpand
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Tracking salmonella-specific CD4 T cells in vivo reveals a local mucosal response to a disseminated infection.
A novel adoptive transfer system was used to track the fate of naive Salmonella-specific CD4 T cells in vivo. These cells showed signs of activation in the Peyer's patches as early as 3 hr after oralExpand
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Characterization of CD4+ T Cell Responses During Natural Infection with Salmonella typhimurium1
CD4+ T cells are important for resistance to infection with Salmonella typhimurium. However, the Ag specificity of this T cell response is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that a significant fraction ofExpand
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Bacterial Flagellin Is an Effective Adjuvant for CD4+ T Cells In Vivo1
Flagellin is secreted by many enteric bacteria and, upon reaching the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelium, activates Toll-like receptor 5-mediated innate immune signaling pathways. WeExpand
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Antibody Is Required for Protection against Virulent but Not Attenuated Salmonella entericaSerovar Typhimurium
ABSTRACT Resolution of infection with attenuated Salmonella is an active process that requires CD4+ T cells. Here, we demonstrate that costimulation via the surface molecule CD28, but not antibodyExpand
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The Ets Transcription Factor Spi-B Is Essential for the Differentiation of Intestinal Microfold (M) Cells
Intestinal microfold cells (M cells) are an enigmatic lineage of intestinal epithelial cells that initiate mucosal immune responses through the uptake and transcytosis of luminal antigens. TheExpand
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