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What is metamorphosis?
TLDR
This article is presented as an introduction to this symposium volume, but also as a reference tool that can be used by others interested in metamorphosis, to represent a springboard for further investigations into the surprisingly deep mechanistic similarities among independently evolved life cycle transitions across kingdoms.
Fundamental properties of the spiralian developmental program are displayed by the basal nemertean Carinoma tremaphoros (Palaeonemertea, Nemertea).
TLDR
It is argued that molluscan or annelid cross are merely two out of much greater variety of patterns created by the differences in the relative size and timing of formation of micromere quartets and none can be considered, by itself, as evidence of close phylogenetic relationship between phyla.
Statistical Parsimony Networks and Species Assemblages in Cephalotrichid Nemerteans (Nemertea)
TLDR
Statistical parsimony network analysis provides a rapid and useful tool for detecting possible undescribed/cryptic species among cephalotrichid nemerteans based on COI gene and should be combined with phylogenetic analysis to get indications of false positive results.
Development to metamorphosis of the nemertean pilidium larva
  • S. Maslakova
  • Biology, Medicine
    Frontiers in Zoology
  • 2 December 2010
TLDR
This study is the first description of pilidial development from fertilization to metamorphosis in a single species of nemertean pilidium, and indicates a different number, origin and fate of various juvenile rudiments.
Contributions of host and symbiont pigments to the coloration of reef corals
TLDR
To unambiguously determine the molecular origin of the coloration, immunochemical studies using double diffusion in gel analysis on tissue extracts, including a third coral species, Montastrea cavernosa, allowed us to attribute the red fluorescent coloration to green‐to‐red photoconvertible fluorescent proteins.
Vestigial prototroch in a basal nemertean, Carinoma tremaphoros (Nemertea; Palaeonemertea)
TLDR
It is suggested that a trochophore‐like larva is plesiomorphic for nemerteans while a pilidium type of development with drastic metamorphosis is derived.
The invention of the pilidium larva in an otherwise perfectly good spiralian phylum Nemertea.
  • S. Maslakova
  • Biology, Medicine
    Integrative and comparative biology
  • 1 November 2010
TLDR
This review is an attempt to examine the pilidium in the context of recent data on development of non-pilidiophoran nemerteans, and speculate about the evolution of pilidial larval development.
Expression of Hox, Cdx, and Six3/6 genes in the hoplonemertean Pantinonemertes californiensis offers insight into the evolution of maximally indirect development in the phylum Nemertea
TLDR
Expression of Hox, Cdx, and Six3/6 genes supports the homology between the imaginal discs of the pilidium and the paired larval invaginations in hoplonemerteans, suggesting that invaginated juvenile rudiments may have been present in the most recent common ancestor of the Pilidiophora and HoplonemerTEa.
Hox genes pattern the anterior-posterior axis of the juvenile but not the larva in a maximally indirect developing invertebrate, Micrura alaskensis (Nemertea)
TLDR
Although the pilidiophoran juvenile develops from separate rudiments with no obvious relationship to the embryonic formation of the larva, the Hox genes appear to exhibit canonical expression along the juvenile AP axis, which suggests that the H Cox patterning system can maintain conserved function even when widely decoupled from early polarity established in the egg.
From trochophore to pilidium and back again - a larva's journey.
TLDR
It is suggested that the possibility of planktotrophic feeding by larvae of the order Hoplonemertea, which until now were considered to be lecithotrophic, may influence estimates of pelagic larval duration, dispersal, and population connectivity in this group.
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