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Medial prefrontal cortex determines how stressor controllability affects behavior and dorsal raphe nucleus
The degree of behavioral control that an organism has over a stressor is a potent modulator of the stressor's impact; uncontrollable stressors produce numerous outcomes that do not occur if theExpand
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Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence.
\, SUMMARY In 1967, Overmier and Seligman found that dogs exposed to inescapable and unavoidable electric shocks in one situation later failed to learn to escape shock in a different situation whereExpand
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Cytokines for psychologists: implications of bidirectional immune-to-brain communication for understanding behavior, mood, and cognition.
The brain and immune system form a bidirectional communication network in which the immune system operates as a diffuse sense organ, informing the brain about events in the body. This allows theExpand
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Glial activation: a driving force for pathological pain
Pain is classically viewed as being mediated solely by neurons, as are other sensory phenomena. The discovery that spinal cord glia (microglia and astrocytes) amplify pain requires a change in thisExpand
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Characterization of cytokine-induced hyperalgesia
Agents which induce symptoms of illness, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), cause diverse effects including hyperalgesia. While previous studies have examined central pathways mediating LPSExpand
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Beyond neurons: evidence that immune and glial cells contribute to pathological pain states.
Chronic pain can occur after peripheral nerve injury, infection, or inflammation. Under such neuropathic pain conditions, sensory processing in the affected body region becomes grossly abnormal.Expand
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Peripheral infection and aging interact to impair hippocampal memory consolidation
We report that a peripheral injection of Escherichia coli produces both anterograde and retrograde amnesia in 24 month old, but not 3 month old rats for memories that depend on the hippocampus, thatExpand
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Spinal Glia and Proinflammatory Cytokines Mediate Mirror-Image Neuropathic Pain in Rats
Mirror-image allodynia is a mysterious phenomenon that occurs in association with many clinical pain syndromes. Allodynia refers to pain in response to light touch/pressure stimuli, which normallyExpand
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Stressor controllability and learned helplessness: The roles of the dorsal raphe nucleus, serotonin, and corticotropin-releasing factor
  • S. Maier, L. Watkins
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 31 December 2005
The term 'learned helplessness' refers to a constellation of behavioral changes that follow exposure to stressors that are not controllable by means of behavioral responses, but that fail to occur ifExpand
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A Role for Proinflammatory Cytokines and Fractalkine in Analgesia, Tolerance, and Subsequent Pain Facilitation Induced by Chronic Intrathecal Morphine
The present experiments examined the role of spinal proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1β (IL-1)] and chemokines (fractalkine) in acute analgesia and in the development of analgesic tolerance,Expand
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