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Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Environment: Terminology, Classification, and Origins
TLDR
Those PFASs that have the potential to be converted into long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic or sulfonic acids are paid particular attention, which are currently the focus of regulatory action.
Bioconcentration and tissue distribution of perfluorinated acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
TLDR
Sulfonates had greater BCFs, half‐lives, and rates of uptake than the corresponding carboxylate of equal perfluoroalkyl chain length, indicating that hydrophobicity, as predicted by the critical micelle concentration, is not the only determinant of PFA bioaccumulation potential and that the acid function must be considered.
Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols: a likely atmospheric source of perfluorinated carboxylic acids.
TLDR
Smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade in the atmosphere to yield a homologous series of PFCAs are presented, suggesting Atmospheric degradation of FTOHs is likely to contribute to the widespread dissemination of P FCAs.
Dietary accumulation of perfluorinated acids in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
TLDR
Sulfonates bioaccumulated to a greater extent than carboxylates of equivalent perfluoroalkyl chain length, indicating that hydrophobicity is not the sole determinant of PFA accumulation potential and that the acid function must be considered.
Identification of long-chain perfluorinated acids in biota from the Canadian Arctic.
TLDR
A preliminary assessment of fluorinated contaminants, including PFCAs, in the Canadian Arctic, polar bears, ringed seals, arctic fox, mink, common loons, northern fulmars, black guillemots, and fish were collected at various locations in the circumpolar region and PFOS was the major contaminant detected.
Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in a food web from Lake Ontario.
TLDR
It was shown that bioaccumulation was indeed occurring at the top of the food web for all perfluoroalkyl compounds except PFOA, and future monitoring at other locations in Lake Ontario, and in other aquatic environments, is necessary to determine if these food web dynamics are widespread.
Monitoring perfluorinated surfactants in biota and surface water samples following an accidental release of fire-fighting foam into Etobicoke Creek.
TLDR
The residence time of perfluorooctanesulfonate in Etobicoke Creek as well as the high bioaccumulation in fish liver suggests that perfluoroalkane-sulfonates will persist andBioaccumulate following release into the aquatic environment.
Fluorotelomer alcohol biodegradation yields poly- and perfluorinated acids.
TLDR
Telomer alcohols were demonstrated to be potential sources of PFCAs as a consequence of biotic degradation, and biological transformation may be a major degradation pathway for fluorinated telomers alcohols in aquatic systems.
Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in the Canadian Arctic: evidence of atmospheric transport and local contamination.
TLDR
Results of this study indicate that local perfluoroalkyl contamination of Resolute Lake, which is located downstream of an airport wastewater input, has occurred, and indicate that degradation of the FTOHs and FSAs is occurring in the Arctic environment.
Perfluorinated acids in Arctic snow: new evidence for atmospheric formation.
TLDR
High Arctic ice caps experience contamination solely from atmospheric sources, and atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursors is a primary source of PFAs to the Arctic, suggesting a fast response to changes in production.
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