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Use of a Distracting Task to Obtain Defensive Head Movements to Looming Visual Stimuli by Human Adults in a Laboratory Setting
TLDR
It is reported that similar responses, namely avoidance movements of the head, can be obtained in most human adults provided that they are suitably distracted by playing a computer tracking game, consistent with the proposition that defensive head movements to looming stimuli represent a basic visual competence that is normally suppressed (or subsumed) by higher competences.
Ethopharmacological analysis of the unstable elevated exposed plus maze, a novel model of extreme anxiety: predictive validity and sensitivity to anxiogenic agents
TLDR
The unstable elevated exposed plus maze (UEEPM) may represent a paradigm to facilitate investigation into the neurochemical basis of extreme anxiety disorders and pharmacological similarities exist between symptoms of panic and anxiety in patients and escape from the UEEPM in rats.
5-HT2C receptor mediation of unconditioned escape behaviour in the unstable elevated exposed plus maze
TLDR
The results suggest that the escape-related behaviours exhibited by animals in the UEEPM are mediated, at least in part, by activation of the 5-HT2C receptor subtype.
Bypassing the Saccadic Pulse Generator: Possible Control of Head Movement Trajectory by Rat Superior Colliculus
TLDR
The results suggest that the rodent superior colliculus may be able to control head movement without recourse to a pulse generator, and thus influence the trajectory of the movement directly, and may prove to be a useful preparation for testing theories of trajectory formation.
Further evidence for the predictive validity of the unstable elevated exposed plus-maze, a behavioural model of extreme anxiety in rats: Differential effects of fluoxetine and chlordiazepoxide
TLDR
It is suggested that the unstable elevated exposed plus-maze may represent a paradigm to facilitate investigation into the neurochemical basis of extreme anxiety disorders and support the pharmacological similarity between symptoms of panic in humans and escape in the UEEPM.
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