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Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science
Summary Ongoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramaticExpand
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Sexual differentiation of the vertebrate nervous system
Understanding the mechanisms that give rise to sex differences in the behavior of nonhuman animals may contribute to the understanding of sex differences in humans. In vertebrate model systems, aExpand
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Masculinized Finger Length Patterns in Human Males and Females with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
The ratio of the length of the second digit (2D) to the length of the fourth digit (4D) is greater in women than in men. Since androgens are involved in most somatic sex differences and since theExpand
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Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation
Animal models have indicated that androgenic steroids acting before birth might influence the sexual orientation of adult humans. Here we examine the androgen-sensitive pattern of finger lengths, andExpand
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Sexual dimorphism in digit‐length ratios of laboratory mice
The lengths of the index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) are sexually dimorphic in humans, and men have a smaller 2D:4D ratio compared to women. Prenatal androgens appear to be important in theExpand
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The role of androgen receptors in the masculinization of brain and behavior: What we've learned from the testicular feminization mutation
Many studies demonstrate that exposure to testicular steroids such as testosterone early in life masculinizes the developing brain, leading to permanent changes in behavior. Traditionally,Expand
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Sexually dimorphic motor nucleus in the rat lumbar spinal cord: Response to adult hormone manipulation, absence in androgen-insensitive rats
There is a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus in the fifth and sixth lumbar segments of the rat spinal cord, consisting of motoneurons innervating two striated perineal muscles, the levator ani and theExpand
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Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms
A wide variety of sexual dimorphisms, structural differences between the sexes, have been described in the brains of many vertebrate species, including humans. In animal models of neural sexualExpand
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Organizational and activational effects of sex steroids on brain and behavior: A reanalysis
The actions of sex steroids on brain and behavior traditionally have been divided into organizational and activational effects. Organizational effects are permanent and occur early in development;Expand
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Overexpression of wild-type androgen receptor in muscle recapitulates polyglutamine disease
We created transgenic mice that overexpress WT androgen receptor (AR) exclusively in their skeletal muscle fibers. Unexpectedly, these mice display androgen-dependent muscle weakness and early death,Expand
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