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Masculinized Finger Length Patterns in Human Males and Females with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
- W. M. Brown, M. Hines, B. Fane, S. M. Breedlove
- Biology, MedicineHormones and Behavior
- 1 December 2002
Results are consistent with the idea that prenatal androgen exposure reduces the 2D:4D and plays a role in the establishment of the sex difference in human finger length patterns, and finger lengths may offer a retrospective marker of perinatal androgens exposure in humans.
Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation
The androgen-sensitive pattern of finger lengths is examined, and there is evidence that homosexual women are exposed to more prenatal androgen than heterosexual women are, and men with more than one older brother, who are more likely than first-born males to be homosexual in adulthood, are exposure to more pregnancies than eldest sons.
Hormone accumulation in a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus of the rat spinal cord.
A morphological sex difference in hormone-sensitive motoneurons that are probably involved in the sexually dimorphic copulatory behavior of the rat are demonstrated.
Organizational and activational effects of sex steroids on brain and behavior: A reanalysis
Sexually dimorphic motor nucleus in the rat lumbar spinal cord: Response to adult hormone manipulation, absence in androgen-insensitive rats
Sexual Differentiation of the Vertebrate Brain: Principles and Mechanisms
- B. Cooke, C. Hegstrom, L. Villeneuve, S. M. Breedlove
- Biology, PsychologyFrontiers in Neuroendocrinology
- 1 October 1998
There is ample evidence of sexual dimorphism in the human brain, as sex differences in behavior would require, but there has not yet been any definitive proof that steroids acting early in development directly masculinize the humanbrain.
A brain sexual dimorphism controlled by adult circulating androgens.
- B. Cooke, G. Tabibnia, S. M. Breedlove
- Biology, PsychologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 22 June 1999
It is demonstrated that adult hormone manipulations can completely reverse a sexual dimorphism in brain regional volume in a mammalian species.
Hormonal control of a developing neuromuscular system. II. Sensitive periods for the androgen-induced masculinization of the rat spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus
- S. M. Breedlove, A. Arnold
- Biology, PsychologyThe Journal of neuroscience : the official…
- 1 February 1983
It is reported that prenatal treatment of females with testosterone propionate (TP) significantly increases the number of SNB neurons found in adulthood, and that androgenized females did not display the postural correlates of male copulatory behavior more often than did control females.
Masculinization of the female rat spinal cord following a single neonatal injection of testosterone propionate but not estradiol benzoate
Sexual differentiation of the human nervous system.
- S. M. Breedlove
- MedicineAnnual review of psychology