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Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition
In this Review a model is developed to explain why different disorders emerge in individuals exposed to stress at different times in their lives. Expand
Allostatic load biomarkers of chronic stress and impact on health and cognition
This article reviews theoretical and empirical work using the allostatic load model vis-à-vis the effects of chronic stress on physical and mental health and proposes policies for promoting successful aging. Expand
The effects of stress and stress hormones on human cognition: Implications for the field of brain and cognition
The cases that led to the diagnosis of glucocorticoid-induced 'steroid psychosis' in human populations are summarized and it is suggested that some of the 'age-related memory impairments' observed in the literature could be partly due to increased stress reactivity in older adults to the environmental context of testing. Expand
Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: Expert consensus guidelines
Consensus guidelines are presented on central aspects of CAR assessment, including objective control of sampling accuracy/adherence, participant instructions, covariate accounting, sampling protocols, quantification strategies as well as reporting and interpreting of CAR data. Expand
The Montreal Imaging Stress Task: using functional imaging to investigate the effects of perceiving and processing psychosocial stress in the human brain.
Performing mental arithmetic was linked to activation of motor and visual association cortices, as well as brain structures involved in the performance of these tasks (e.g., the angular gyrus). Expand
Deactivation of the Limbic System During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Evidence from Positron Emission Tomography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
A model is proposed where the observed reduction in limbic system activity is essential for the initiation of the stress response, and suggests elevated activation at rest and during nonstressful situations. Expand
Volumetry of hippocampus and amygdala with high-resolution MRI and three-dimensional analysis software: minimizing the discrepancies between laboratories.
Results indicate that the advances in scanning technique, volume preparation and segmentation protocols allow a more precise definition of medial temporal lobe structures with MRI, and that results for mean volumes for hippocampus and amygdala from different laboratories will eventually become comparable. Expand
Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits
Elevated glucocorticoid levels produce hippocampal dysfunction and correlate with individual deficits in spatial learning in aged rats. Previously we related persistent cortisol increases to memoryExpand
The acute effects of corticosteroids on cognition: integration of animal and human model studies
A theoretical framework is proposed that leads to testable predictions regarding the acute effects of corticosteroids on cognitive function and new experimental protocols for use in humans are suggested that could help resolve discrepancies and assess more clearly the nature of the cognitive deficits induced by acute administration of cortICosteroids. Expand
Stress, memory, and the hippocampus: can't live with it, can't live without it
The conclusion of this analysis will be that scientists should gain from extending the impact of stress hormones to other brain regions, since hormonal functions on the brain are best explained by their modulatory role on various brain structures, rather than by their unique impact on one particular brain region. Expand