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Stochastic Gene Expression in a Single Cell
Six6/Dach repressive function in eye development is identified, identifying a unique role of Six6 in terms of regulating downstream genes by interacting with specific partners and providing an organ-specific strategy for the expansion of precursor cell populations during development, a strategy that is likely used in other organ systems.
Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) can induce dementia with alarming occurrence worldwide, but discovery in brain of HIV-1-binding sites (chemokine receptors) provides new insights.
Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018
An updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential aspects of the process is proposed, and the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes are discussed.
Excitatory glycine receptors containing the NR3 family of NMDA receptor subunits
The cloning and characterization of the final member of the NMDAR family, NR3B, is reported, which shares high sequence homology with NR3A and is expressed predominantly in motor neurons, whereasNR3A is more widely distributed.
S-Nitrosylated protein-disulphide isomerase links protein misfolding to neurodegeneration
It is shown that PDI is S-nitrosylated, a reaction transferring a nitric oxide group to a critical cysteine thiol to affect protein function, which prevents neurotoxicity associated with ER stress and protein misfolding in neurodegenerative disorders.
A redox-based mechanism for the neuroprotective and neurodestructive effects of nitric oxide and related nitroso-compounds
It is reported that NO.-mediated neurotoxicity is engendered, at least in part, by reaction with superoxide anion (O.-2), apparently leading to formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO−), and not by NO.
Apoptosis and necrosis: two distinct events induced, respectively, by mild and intense insults with N-methyl-D-aspartate or nitric oxide/superoxide in cortical cell cultures.
- E. Bonfoco, D. Krainc, M. Ankarcrona, P. Nicotera, S. Lipton
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 1 August 1995
It is reported that exposure of cortical neurons to relatively short durations or low concentrations of NMDA, S-nitrosocysteine, or 3-morpholinosydnonimine, which generate low levels of peroxynitrite, induces a delayed form of neurotoxicity predominated by apoptotic features.
S-Nitrosylation of Drp1 Mediates β-Amyloid-Related Mitochondrial Fission and Neuronal Injury
It is found that nitric oxide produced in response to β-amyloid protein, thought to be a key mediator of Alzheimer's disease, triggered mitochondrial fission, synaptic loss, and neuronal damage, in part via S-nitrosylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (forming SNO-Drp1).
Glutamate-induced neuronal death: A succession of necrosis or apoptosis depending on mitochondrial function
Paradigm shift in neuroprotection by NMDA receptor blockade: Memantine and beyond
- S. Lipton
- BiologyNature Reviews Drug Discovery
- 1 February 2006
The molecular basis for memantine efficacy in neurological diseases that are mediated, at least in part, by overactivation of NMDARs, producing excessive Ca2+ influx through the receptor's associated ion channel and consequent free-radical formation is reviewed.