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The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity
TLDR
Comparative analysis enabled by the sequencing of the sponge genome reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signalling pathway and structural genes.
The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all poriferan classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges.
TLDR
It is suggested that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.
The biology of glass sponges.
Developmental expression of transcription factor genes in a demosponge: insights into the origin of metazoan multicellularity
TLDR
It is demonstrated that members of a range of transcription factor gene classes are expressed during the development of the demosponge Reniera, including ANTP, Pax, POU, LIM‐HD, Sox, nuclear receptor, Fox (forkhead), T‐box, Mef2, and Ets genes.
Cytological Basis of Photoresponsive Behavior in a Sponge Larva
  • S. Leys, B. Degnan
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    The Biological Bulletin
  • 1 December 2001
TLDR
In the absence of a coordinating system in cellular sponges, the spatial organization and autonomous behavior of the pigmented posterior cells control the rapid responses to light shown by these larvae.
Impulse conduction in a sponge.
TLDR
All-or-none propagated electrical impulses were recorded from the hexactinellid sponge Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni using suction electrodes attached to lumps of aggregated sponge tissue grafted onto the surface of pieces of the same sponge, indicating that the conduction and effector systems were independent.
Coordinated contractions effectively expel water from the aquiferous system of a freshwater sponge
TLDR
The orchestrated and highly repeatable series of contractions carried out by the freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri illustrates that cellular sponges are capable of coordinated behavioural responses even in the absence of neurons and true muscle.
Embryogenesis and larval differentiation in sponges
TLDR
Original data on the mode of cleavage, timing of cellular differentiation, and the mechanisms involved in the organization of differentiated cells to form the metazoan body plan are reviewed.
Epithelia and integration in sponges.
TLDR
Recognition that sponges have epithelia challenges the perception that spongees are only loose associations of cells, and helps to relate the biology and physiology of the body plan of the adult sponge to the biology of other metazoans.
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