The Global Extent and Determinants of Savanna and Forest as Alternative Biome States
Tree cover, climate, fire, and soils data sets are used to show that tree cover is globally discontinuous, and only fire differentiates between savanna and forest.
Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals
- T. V. Van Boeckel, C. Brower, R. Laxminarayan
- Engineering, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 19 March 2015
The first global map (228 countries) of antibiotic consumption in livestock is presented and it is projected that antimicrobial consumption will rise by 67% by 2030, and nearly double in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
Anticipating Critical Transitions
How previously isolated lines of work can be connected are reviewed, it is concluded that many critical transitions (such as escape from the poverty trap) can have positive outcomes, and how the new approaches to sensing fragility can help to detect both risks and opportunities for desired change.
Global antibiotic consumption 2000 to 2010: an analysis of national pharmaceutical sales data.
Tree cover in sub-Saharan Africa: rainfall and fire constrain forest and savanna as alternative stable states.
This model demonstrates that, given relatively conservative and empirically supported assumptions about the establishment of trees in savannas, alternative stable states for the same set of environmental conditions are possible via a fire feedback mechanism and could improve the ability to predict changes in biome distributions and in carbon storage under climate and global change scenarios.
Global increase and geographic convergence in antibiotic consumption between 2000 and 2015
- E. Klein, T. V. Van Boeckel, R. Laxminarayan
- MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 26 March 2018
It is found that the antibiotic consumption rate in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) has been converging to (and in some countries surpassing) levels typically observed in high-income countries, and projected total global antibiotic consumption through 2030 was up to 200% higher than the 42 billion DDDs estimated in 2015.
Marine Taxa Track Local Climate Velocities
Using nearly 50 years of coastal survey data on >350 marine taxa, Pinsky et al. found that climate velocity was a much better predictor of patterns of change than individual species' characteristics or life histories.
Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin
- G. Ziv, E. Baran, S. Nam, I. Rodríguez‐Iturbe, S. Levin
- Environmental ScienceProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 1 December 2011
This work estimates fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration to find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity.
Phenotypic diversity and ecosystem functioning in changing environments: A theoretical framework
- J. Norberg, D. Swaney, J. Dushoff, Juan Lin, R. Casagrandi, S. Levin
- Environmental ScienceProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 4 September 2001
It is suggested that approaches developed for quantitative genetics can be extended to ecosystem functioning by modeling the means and variances of phenotypes within a group of species, and that phenotypic variance within functional groups is linearly related to their ability to respond to environmental changes.
Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?
- M. Troell, R. Naylor, A. de Zeeuw
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 18 August 2014
This work explores how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change.